Buddhist Studies Review, Vol 32, No 1 (2015)

Toward a Global History of Buddhism and Medicine

C. Pierce Salguero
Issued Date: 26 Nov 2015

Abstract


The close relationship between Buddhism and medicine that has become so visible thanks to the contemporary ‘mindfulness revolution’ is not necessarily unique to the twenty-first century. The ubiquitous contemporary emphasis on the health benefits of Buddhist and Buddhist-inspired practice is in many ways the latest chapter in a symbiotic relationship between Buddhism and medicine that is both centuries-long and of global scope. This article represents the first steps toward writing a book that explores the global history of Buddhism and medicine ‘from Sarnath to Silicone Valley’. It identifies patterns in the transmission and reception of texts and ideas, networks of circulation, and intersections with local and regional histories that shaped the history of Buddhist ideas and practices concerning physical health and healing.

Download Media

PDF

DOI: 10.1558/bsrv.v32i1.26984

References


Adshead, Samuel Adrian M. 2000. China in World History, Third Edition. New York: St. Martin’s.


Bagchi, Prabodh Chandra. 1941. ‘New materials for the study of the Kumāratantra’. Indian Culture 7(3): 269–286.


———. 2011 [1942–3]. ‘A Fragment of the Kāśyapa-saṁhitā in Chinese’. In India and China: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi, edited by Bangwei Wang and Tansen Sen, 75–85. London, New York, Delhi: Anthem Press.


Baker, Donald. 1994. ‘Monks, Medicine, and Miracles: Health and Healing in the History of Korean Buddhism’. Korean Studies 18: 50–75.


Bielenstein, Hans. 2005. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese World, 589–1276. Leiden: Brill.


Birnbaum, Raoul. 1989a. The Healing Buddha. Boulder: Shambhala.


———. 1989b. ‘Chinese Buddhist Traditions of Healing and the Life Cycle’. In Healing and Restoring: Health and Medicine in the World’s Religious Traditions, edited by Lawrence E. Sullivan, 33–57. New York: Macmillan.


Boucher, Daniel. 2008. Bodhisattvas of the Forest and the Formation of the Mahāyāna: A Study and Translation of the Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā-sūtra. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Buswell, Robert E., ed. 1990. Chinese Buddhist Apocrypha. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Campany, Robert Ford. 2012. Signs from the Unseen Realm: Buddhist Miracle Tales from Early Medieval China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Chavannes, Edouard. 1962. Cinq cents contes et apologues: Extraits du Tripitaka chinois et traduits en français. Paris: Libraire d’Amerique et d’Orient.


Chen Huaiyu. 2007. The Revival of Buddhist Monasticism in Medieval China. New York: Peter Lang.


Ch’en, Kenneth. 1973. The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Chen Ming 陳明. 2002. Yindu fanwen yidian ‘Yili jinghua’ yanjiu 印度梵文醫典《醫理精華》研究. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.


———. 2005. Dunhuang chutu huhua yidian ‘Qipo shu’ yanjiu 敦煌出土胡話醫典《耆婆書》研究. Hong Kong: Xinwenfeng chuban.


———. 2007. ‘The Transmission of Foreign Medicine via the Silk Roads in Medieval China: A Case Study of the Haiyao bencao’. Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity 3(2): 241–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307866


———. 2013. Zhonggu yiliao yu wailai wenhua 中古医疗外來文化. Beijing: Peking University Press.


Chhem, Kieth Rethy. 2005. ‘Bhaisajyaguru and Tantric Medicine in Jayavarman VII Hospitals’. Siksācakr: Journal of the Center for Khmer Studies 7: 8–18.


———. 2007. ‘La médecine au service du pouvoir angkorien: Universités monastiques, transmission du savoir et formation médicale sous le règne de Jayavarman VII (118–1220 A.D.)’. Canadian Journal of Buddhist Studies 3: 95–124.


Chokevivat, Vichai, and Anchalee Chuthaputti. 2005. ‘The Role of Thai Traditional Medicine in Health Promotion’. Conference paper from 6GCHP, Bangkok, Thailand, 7–11 Aug., 2005. Retrieved from WHO website: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/medicines/topics/traditional_medicines_in_the_kingdom_of_thailand.pdf, on 13 Mar. 2015.


Chuthaputti, Anchalee and Benjama Boonterm. 2010. ‘Traditional Medicine in Kingdom of Thailand: Integration of Thai Traditional Medicine in the National Health Care System of Thailand’. In Traditional Medicine in ASEAN: Based on Country Report Presentations in the ‘Conference on Traditional Medicine in ASEAN Countries’, 31 August — 2 September 2009 Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: Bangkok Medical Publisher. Retrieved from WHO website: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/medicines/topics/traditional_medicines_in_the_kingdom_of_thailand.pdf, on 13 Mar. 2015.


Clark, Barry. 1995. The Quintessence Tantras of Tibetan Medicine. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.


Cordier, Palmyr. 1903. ‘Introduction a l’étude des traités médicaux sanscrits inclus dans le Tanjur tibetain’. Bulletin de I’Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-orient 3(4): 604–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/befeo.1903.1258


Dash, Vaidya Bhagwan. 1985. Tibetan Medicine: With Special Reference to Yoga Śataka. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives.


Davis, Edward L. 2001. Society and the Supernatural in Song China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Deck, Christina. 2002. ‘Health, Karma, and Practice: Well-Being and Purification in Tibetan Buddhism’. http://www.pluralism.org/affiliates/sered/Deck.pdf. Accessed 11 Jun. 2015.


Demiéville, Paul. 1985 [1937]. Buddhism and Healing: Demiéville’s Article ‘Byō’ from Hōbōgirin. Trans. by Mark Tatz. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.


Deshpande, Vijaya, and Fan Ka-wai. 2012. Restoring the Dragon’s Vision: Nagarjuna and Medieval Chinese Ophthalmology. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.


Despeux, Catherine. 2010. ‘Institutions médicales et thérapeutes à Dunhuang et à Turfan’. In Médecine, religion, et société dans la Chine médiévale: Étude de manuscrits chinois de Dunhuang et de Turfan, edited by Catherine Despeux, 43–63. Paris: Collège de France, Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises.


Devi, Bibha. 1979. ‘I-Tsing’s Observation on Bathing and Its Medical Appraisal’. In Chikitsa: Collection of Research Articles on Ayurveda, Vol. 1, edited by Shyam Kishore Lal and Arun M. Parkhe, 55–57. Shivapuri-Akalkot (Maharashtra): Dharmatma Tatyajimaharaj Memorial Medical Relief Trust.


Dietrich, Angela. 1996. ‘Research Note: Buddhist Healers in Nepal, Some Observations’. Contributions to Nepalese Studies 23(2): 473–480.


Ehara, N. R. M., Soma Thera, and Kheminda Thera. 1961. The Path of Freedom, By the Arahant Upatissa, Translated Into Chinese (Gedatsu Do Ron) By Tipitaka Sanghapala of Funan. Colombo: D. Roland D. Weerasuria.


Elverskog, Johan. 2010. Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.


Emmerick, R. E. 1971. ‘The Sanskrit Text of the Siddhasāra’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 34(1): 91–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X0014159X


———. 1974. ‘New Light on the “Siddhasāra”.’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 37(3): 628–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00127521


———. 1979. ‘Contributions to the Study of the Jīvaka-Pustaka’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 42(2): 235–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00145793


———. 1982. The Siddhasāra of Ravigupta. Wiesbaden: Steiner.


———. 2004. The Sūtra of Golden Light (Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra), Third Edition. Oxford: Pali Text Society.


Fan, Fa-ti. 2012. ‘The Global Turn in the History of Science’. East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal 6: 249–258.


Fenner, Todd. 1996. ‘The Origin of the rGyud bzhi: A Tibetan Medical Tantra’. In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, edited by José Ignacio Cabezon and Roger R. Jackson, 458–469. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion.


Filliozat, Jean. 1935. ‘Le Kumāratantra de Rāvaṇa’. Journal Asiatique 226: 1–66.


———. 1937. Étude de démonologie indienne: Le Kumaratantra de Râvana et les textes parallèles indiens, tibétains, chinois, cambodgien et arabe. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.


———. 1979. Yogaśataka: Texte médical attribué à Nāgārjuna: Textes sanskrit et tibétain, traduction Française, notes, indices. Pondicherry, India: Institut Français d’Indologie.


Frauwallner, Erich. 1956. The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature. Rome: Istituti Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.


Fu Fang 傅芳 and Ni Qing 倪靑, eds. 1996. Zhongguo foyi renwu xiaozhuan 中囯佛医人物小传.
Xiamen: Lujiang chubanshe.


Fussman, G. 1993. ‘Taxila: The Central Asian Connection’. In Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia: The Shaping of Cities from Prehistoric to Precolonial Times, edited by Howard Spodek and Doris Srinivasan, 83–100. Washington: National Gallery of Art.


Gallison, Peter. 1997. Image and Logic: A Material Culture of Microphysics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Garrett, Frances. 2008. Religion, Medicine and the Human Embryo in Tibet. London: Routledge.


———. 2009. ‘The Alchemy of Accomplishing Medicine (sman sgrub): Situating the Yuthok Heart Essence (G.yu thog snying thig) in Literature and History’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 37: 207–230.


Gernet, Jacques. 1995 [1956]. Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History from the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries. Translated by Franciscus Verellen. New York: Columbia University Press.


Giles, H. A., trans. 1923. The Travels of Fa-Hsien (399–414 A.D.), or Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Faxian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Goble, Andrew E. 2009. ‘Kajiwara Shozen (1265–1337) and the Medical Silk Road: Chinese and Arabic Influences on Early Medieval Japanese Medicine’. In Tools of Culture: Japan’s Cultural, Intellectual, Medical, and Technological Contacts in East Asia, 1000-1500s, edited by A.E. Goble, K.R. Robinson and H.N. Wakabayashi, 231–257. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies.


———. 2011. Confluences of Medicine in Medieval Japan: Buddhist Healing, Chinese Knowledge, Islamic Formulas, and Wounds of War. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Goldschmidt, Asaf Moshe. 2009. The Evolution of Chinese Medicine: Song Dynasty, 960–1200. London: Routledge.


Gosling, David. 1985. ‘Thailand’s Bare-Headed Doctors’. Modern Asian Studies 19(4): 761–796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X00015468


Greene, Eric Matthew. 2012. ‘Meditation, Repentance, and Visionary Experience in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley.


Griswold, A. B. 1965. ‘The Rishis of Wat Pō’. In Felicitation Volumes of Southeast-Asian Studies Presented to His Highness Prince Dhaninivat Kromamun Bidyalabh Brindhyakorn, 319–328. Bangkok: The Siam Society.


Gyatso, Janet. 2015. Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet. New York: Columbia University Press.


Ha, Tae-Hung and Grafton K. Mintz, trans. 1972. Samguk yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea. Seoul: Yonsei University Press.


Heirmann, Ann, and Stephan Peter Bumbacher, eds. 2007. The Spread of Buddhism. Leiden: Brill.


Hoernle, A. F. Rudolf. 1917. ‘An Ancient Medical Manuscript From Eastern Turkestan’. In Commemorative Essays Presented to Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar, edited by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 415–432. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.


———. 1987. The Bower Manuscript. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.


Hofer, Teresia, ed. 2014. Bodies in Balance: The Art of Tibetan Medicine. New York: Rubin Museum of Art / University of Washington Press.


Horner, I. B., trans. 2000. The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya-Piṭaka), Vol. 4. Oxford: Pali Text Society.


Hureau, Sylvie. 2010. ‘Translations, Apocrypha, and the Emergence of the Buddhist Canon’. In Early Chinese Religion, Part Two: The Period of Division (220–589 AD), edited by John Lagerwey and Lü Pengzhi, 741–774. Leiden: Brill.


Jacques, Claude. 1968. ‘Les édites des hôpitaux de Jayavarman VII’. Études Cambodgiennes 13: 14–17.


Jaworski, Jan. 1927. ‘La section des remèdes dans le Vinaya des Malūśāsaka et dans le Vinaya Pali’. Rocznik orjentalistyczny 5: 92–101.


Josephson, Jason Ananda. 2010. ‘An Empowered World: Buddhist Medicine and the Potency of Prayer in Meiji Japan’. In Deus in Machina: Religion, Technology, and the Things in Between, edited by J. Stolow, 117–141. New York: Fordham University Press.


Kapani, Lakshmi. 1989. ‘Upanishad of the Embryo / Note on the Garbha-Upanishad’. In Fragments for a History of the Human Body, Vol. 3, edited by Michel Feher, Ramona Naddaff, and Nadia Tazi, 177–196. New York and Cambridge, MA: Zone.


Kara, György. 2004. ‘An Old Tibetan Fragment on Healing From the Sutra of the Thousand-Eyed and Thousand-Handed Great Compassionate Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara in the Berlin Turfan Collection’. In Turfan Revisited: The First Century of Research Into the Arts and Cultures of the Silk Road, edited by Desmond Durkin-Meisterernst et al., 141–146. Berlin: Reimer.


Kieschnick, John. 1997. The Eminent Monk: Buddhist Ideals in Medieval Chinese Hagiography. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Kilty, Gavin. 2010. Mirror of Beryl: A Historical Introduction to Tibetan Medicine. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.


Köhle, Natalie. Unpublished ms. ‘A Confluence of Humours: Connections between Āyurvedic and Chinese Imaginations of Digestion, and the History of Chinese ‘Phlegm’ tan 痰’.


Kritzer, Robert. 2009. ‘Life in the Womb: Conception and Gestation in Buddhist Scripture and Classical Indian Medical Literature’. In Imagining the Fetus: The Unborn in Myth, Religion, and Culture, edited by Vanessa R. Sasson and Jane Marie Law, 73–89. Oxford: Oxford University Press


———. 2014. Garbhāvakrāntisūtra: The Sūtra on Entry into the Womb. Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies.


Lancaster, Lewis R. 2012 [1999]. ‘The Movement of Buddhist Texts from India to China and the Construction of the Chinese Buddhist Canon’. Sino-Platonic Papers 222: 226–238.


Langenberg, Amy Paris. 2008. ‘The Buddhist Rhetoric of Childbirth in an Early Mahāyāna Sūtra’. Unpublished PhD thesis, Columbia University.


———. 2014. ‘Female Monastic Healing and Midwifery: A View From the Vinaya Tradition’. Journal of Buddhist Ethics 21. ISSN 1076–9005. http://blogs.dickinson.edu/buddhistethics/2014/02/22/female-monastic-healing-and-midwifery/. Accessed 5 Mar. 2015.


Latour, Bruno. 1987. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Li Rongxi. 1993. The Biographical Scripture of King Aśoka. Berkeley: Numata Center.


———. 1996. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions. Berkeley: Numata Center.


———. 2000. Buddhist Monastic Traditions of Southern Asia: A Record of the Inner Law Sent Home from the South Seas. Berkeley: Numata Center.


Liétard, GA. 1902. ‘Le pèlerin bouddhiste choinois I-Tsing et la médecine de l’Inde au VIIe siècle’. Bulletin de la Société française d’Histoire de la médecine 1: 472–487.


Lin, Li-kuang. 1935. ‘Puṇyodaya (Na-Ti), un propagateur du tantrisme en Chine et au Cambodge, à l’époque de Hiuan-Tsang’. Journal Asiatique 227: 83–97.


Liyanaratne, Jindasa. 2002–2009. The Casket of Medicine (Bhesajjamañjūsā). Vols. 1–2. Oxford: Pali Text Society.


Lusthaus, Dan. 2013. ‘A Note on Medicine and Psychosomatic Relations in the First Two Bhūmis of the Yogācārabhūmi’. In The Foundation for Yoga Practitioners: The Buddhist Yogacarabhumi Treatise and Its Adaptation in India, East Asia, and Tibet, edited by Ulrich Timme Kragh, 578–595. Cambridge, Mass.: Department of South Asian Studies, Harvard University.


Mazars, Sylvain. 2008. Le bouddhisme et la médecine traditionnelle de l’Inde. Paris: Springer.


Maue, Dieter. 2008. ‘An Uighur Version of Vāghaṭa’s Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā’. Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity 4: 113–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157342108X381241


McMahan, David L. 2008. The Making of Buddhist Modernism. New York: Oxford University Press.


Meulenbeld, G. Jan. 1999–2002. A History of Indian Medical Literature. Vols. 1A–3. Groningen: Egbert Forsten.


Mitra, Jyotir. 1985. A Critical Appraisal of Ayurvedic Material in Buddhist Literature with Special Reference to Tripitaka. Varanasi: Jyotiralok Prakashan.


Mulholland, Jean. 1987. Medicine, Magic, and Evil Spirits. Canberra: Australian National University.


Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu. 1999. The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga) by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa. Seattle: BPS Pariyatti.


Naqvi, Nasim H. 2011. A Study of Buddhist Medicine and Surgery in Gandhara. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.


Nattier, Jan. 1990. ‘Church Language and Vernacular Language in Central Asian Buddhism’. Numen 37(2): 195–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156852790X00142


Needham, Joseph. 2000. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 6.6: ‘Medicine’, edited by Nathan Sivin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Neelis, Jason. 2011. Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. Leiden: Brill.


Nivat, Dhani. 1933. ‘The Inscriptions of Wat Phra Jetubon’. Journal of the Siam Society 26(2): 143–170.


Nobel, Johannes. 1951. ‘Ein alter Medizinischer Sanskrit-Text und seine Deutung’. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Supp. 11.


Norman, K. R. 2006. A Philological Approach to Buddhism: The Bukkyō Dendō Kyōkai Lectures 1994, Second edition. Lancaster: Pali Text Society.


Numrich, P. D. 2005. ‘Complementary and Alternative Medicine in America’s “Two Buddhisms”.’ In Religion and Healing in America, edited by Linda L. Barnes and Susan S. Sered, 343–358. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Okuda, Jun, Yukio Noro and Shiro Ito. 2005. ‘Les pots de médicament de Yakushi Bouddha (Bouddha de la Guérison) au Japon’. Revue d’histoire de la pharmacie 93(345): 7–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/pharm.2005.5757


Orzech, Charles D. 2006. ‘Looking for Bhairava: Exploring the Circulation of Esoteric Texts Produced by the Song Institute for Canonical Translation’. Pacific World 8: 139–166.


Orzech, Charles D., Henrik H. Sorensen and Richard K. Payne, eds. 2011. Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras in East Asia. Leiden: Brill.


Parfionovitch, Yuri, Gyurme Dorje and Fernand Meyer. 1992. Tibetan Medical Paintings: Illustrations to the Blue Beryl Treatise of Sangye Gyamtso (1653–1705). New York: Harry N. Abrams


Pratt, Mary Louise. 1991. ‘Arts of the Contact Zone’. Profession 91: 33–40.


Ratanakul, Pinit. 2004. ‘The Buddhist Concept of Life, Suffering and Death, and Related Bioethical Issues’. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 14: 141–146.


Reddy, Subba. 1938. ‘Glimpses Into the Practice and Principles of Medicine in Buddhistic India in the 7th Century A.D. Gleaned From “The Records of Buddhist Religion by the Chinese Monk I-Tsing”.’ Bulletin of the Indian Institute of History and Medicine 17: 155–167.


Robson, James. 2014. ‘The Buddha Image Inside-Out: On the Placing of Objects Inside Statues in East Asia’. In Buddhism Across Asia: Networks of Material, Intellectual, and Cultural Exchange, edited by T. Sen , 291–308. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies


Saha, Kshanika. 1985. Indian Medical Text in Central Asia. Calcutta: Firma KLM.


Salguero, C. Pierce. 2009. ‘The Buddhist Medicine King in Literary Context: Reconsidering an Early Example of Indian Influence on Chinese Medicine and Surgery’. History of Religions 48(3): 183–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/598230


———. 2010. ‘“A Flock of Ghosts Bursting Forth and Scattering”: Healing Narratives in a SixthCentury Chinese Buddhist Hagiography’. East Asian Science Technology and Medicine 32: 89–120.


———. 2010–2011. ‘Mixing Metaphors: Translating the Indian Medical Doctrine Tridoṣa in Chinese Buddhist Sources’. Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity 6: 55–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157342110X606860


———. 2012. ‘“Treating Illness”: Translation of a Chapter from a Medieval Chinese Buddhist Meditation Manual by Zhiyi (538–597)’, Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity 7(2): 461–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15734218-12341262


———. 2013a. ‘Fields of Merit, Harvests of Health: Some Notes on the Role of Medical Karma in the Popularization of Buddhism in Early Medieval China’. Asian Philosophy 23(4): 341–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09552367.2013.831537


———. 2013b. ‘“On Eliminating Disease”: Translations of the Medical Chapter from the Chinese Versions of the Sutra of Golden Light’. eJournal of Indian Medicine 6(1): 21–43.


———. 2014a. ‘Buddhism and Medicine in East Asian History’. Religion Compass 8(8): 239–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rec3.12113


———. 2014b. ‘Medicine’. In Richard Payne (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Buddhism. Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780195393521-0140


———. 2014c. Translating Buddhist Medicine in Medieval China. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.9783/9780812209693


———. 2015. ‘Reexamining the Categories and Canons of Buddhism and Healing in China’. Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies 28: 35–66.


———. Forthcoming. ‘Honoring the Teachers, Constructing the Tradition: The Role of History and Religion in the Waikrū Ceremony of a Thai Traditional Medicine Hospital’. In Shaping Practitioners and Fashioning Health Citizenship: Medicine and Health in Southeast Asia, edited by Hans Pols, Michele Thompson, and John Harley Warner. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.


Schaeffer, Kurtis R. 2003. ‘Textual Scholarship, Medical Tradition, and Mahayana Buddhist Ideals in Tibet’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 31: 621–641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026397405584


Schafer, Edward H. 1963. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T’ang Exotics. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Schopen, Gregory. 1978. ‘The Bhaiṣajyaguru-Sūtra and the Buddhism of Gilgit’. Unpublished PhD thesis, Australian National University.


———. 2004. Buddhist Monks and Business Matters: Still More Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Sen, Tansen. 2001. ‘In Search of Longevity and Good Karma: Chinese Diplomatic Missions to Middle India in the Seventh Century’. Journal of World History 12(1): 1–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jwh.2001.0025


———. 2003. Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400. Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawai’i Press.


———., ed. 2014. Buddhism Across Asia: Networks of Material, Intellectual, and Cultural Exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.


Sharrock, Peter. Unpublished ms. ‘“The Grief of Kings is the Suffering of Their People”: The Imperial Mission of the Cambodian Buddha of Medicine’. Paper delivered at the annual conference of the UK Association for Buddhist Studies, 1 Jul. 2014.


Shinohara, Koichi. 2007. ‘The Moment of Death in Daoxuan’s Vinaya Commentary’. In The Buddhist Dead: Practices, Discourses, Representations, edited by Bryan J. Cuevas and Jacqueline Stone, 105–133. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.


Sinor, Denis. 1995. ‘Languages and Cultural Interchange Along the Silk Road’. Diogenes 43 (171): 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/039219219504317102


Sivin, Nathan. 1995. ‘Emotional Counter-Therapy’. In Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in Ancient China: Researches and Reflections, Section II, edited by Nathan Sivin, 2–19. Aldershot: Variorum.


Skjaervø, Prods Oktor. 2004. This Most Excellent Shine of Gold, King of Kings of Sutras: The Khotanese Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.


Somerville, Margaret and Tony Perkins. 2003. ‘Border Work in the Contact Zone: Thinking Indigenous/non-Indigenous Collaboration Spatially’. International Journal of Intercultural Studies 24(3): 253–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0725686032000172597


Strickmann, Michel. 2002. Chinese Magical Medicine. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


Strong, John S. 1983. The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Suzuki, Yui. 2012. Medicine Master Buddha: The Iconic Worship of Yakushi in Heian Japan. Leiden: Brill.


Takakusu Junjirō. 1966 [1896]. A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practiced in India and the Malay Archipelago (AD 671–695) by I-Tsing. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.


Tanba Yasuyori, Emil C. H. Hsia, Ilza Veith and Robert Geertsma. 1986. The Essentials of Medicine in Ancient China and Japan. Yasuyori Tamba’s Ishimpo. Leiden: Brill.


Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu (Geoffrey DeGraff). 2007. The Buddhist Monastic Code II: The Khandhaka Training Rules Translated and Explained. Valley Center, Calif.: Metta Forest Monastery. Downloadable from: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/bmc2.pdf


Thompson, C. Michele. Unpublished ms. ‘The Travels and Travails of Tuệ Tĩnh 慧靖, a Gift from the Royal Court of the Trần to the Royal Court of the Ming’. Paper delivered at the annual conference of the Association of Asian Studies, 29 Mar. 2014.


Triplett, Katja. 2012. ‘Magical Medicine? — Japanese Buddhist Medical Knowledge and Ritual Instruction for Healing the Physical Body’. Japanese Religions 37(1/2): 63–92.


———. 2014. ‘For Mothers and Sisters: Care of the Reproductive Female Body in the Medico-ritual World of Early and Medieval Japan’. Dynamis 34(2): 337–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362014000200004


Unschuld, Paul U. 2010 [1985]. Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Vogel, Claus. 1965. Vāgbhata’s Aṣṭāngahṛdayasaṃhitā: The First Five Chapters of Its Tibetan Version. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.


von Schiefner, F. Anton. 1906. Tibetan Tales Derived From Indian Sources: Translated From the Tibetan of the Kah-Gyur. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.


Wallace, Vesna A. 2012. ‘The Method-and-Wisdom Model of the Medical Body in Traditional Mongolian Medicine’. Arc — The Journal of the Faculty of Religious Studies, McGill University 40: 1–22.


Wangchuk, P., D. Wangchuk and J. Aagaard-Hansen. 2007. ‘Traditional Bhutanese Medicine (gSo-BA Rig-PA): An Integrated Part of the Formal Health Care Services’. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 38(1): 161–167.


Watson, Burton, trans. 1993. The Lotus Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press.


———. Trans. 1997. The Vimalakirti Sutra. New York: Columbia University Press.


Weiss, Mitchell G. 1980. ‘Caraka Saṃhitā on the Doctrine of Karma’. In Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, edited by Wendy Doniger, 90–115. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Williamson, Laila and Serinity Young. 2009. Body and Spirit: Tibetan Medical Paintings. New York: American Museum of Natural History/University of Washington Press.


Wilson, Jeff. 2014. Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199827817.001.0001


Winfield, Pamela D. 2005. ‘Curing With Kaji: Healing and Esoteric Empowerment in Japan’. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 32(1): 107–130.


Wong, Dorothy C. and Gustav Heldt. China and Beyond in the Mediaeval Period: Cultural Crossings and Inter-Regional Connections. New Delhi: Manohar.


Wright, Arthur F. 1948. ‘Fo-tu-têng: A Biography’. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 11(3–4): 312–371.


Wu, Hongyu. 2002. ‘Buddhism, Health, and Healing in a Chinese Community’. http://www.pluralism.org/affiliates/sered/Wu.pdf. Accessed 11 Jun. 2015.


Wujastyk, Dominik. 1998a. ‘Miscarriages of Justice: Demonic Vengeance in Classical Indian Medicine’. In Religion, Health and Suffering, edited by John R. Hinnells and Roy Porter, 256–275. London and New York: Kegan Paul International.


———. 1998b. ‘Medical Demonology in the Kasyapasamhita’. In Holistic Life and Medicine, edited by T. S. Murali, C. Ramankutty, K. V. Ramachandran, and P. K. Warrier, 153–159. Kottakal: Arya Vaidya Sala.


———. 2003. The Roots of Ayurveda. London: Penguin Books.


Zieme, Peter. 2007. ‘Notes on Uighur Medicine, Especially on the Uighur Siddhasāra Tradition’. Asian Medicine 3(2): 308–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157342008X307901


Zürcher, Erik. 2012 [1999]. ‘Buddhism Across Boundaries: The Foreign Input’. Sino-Platonic Papers 222: 1–25.


Zysk, Kenneth. 1998 [1991]. Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy