CALICO Journal, Vol 35, No 3 (2018)

Preparing the Online Language Program Administrator: A Needs Analysis of Intensive English Programs in the United States

Angel Steadman, Rachel Kraut
Issued Date: 17 Sep 2018


As fully-online classes continue to grow in popularity, administrators of language programs in higher education settings are increasingly responsible for implementing and overseeing online language teaching classes and curricula. However, few language program administrators have extensive experience in online education, and little training exists at the administrative level for this field. In this mixed-methods study, survey and interview data with Intensive English Program (IEP) administrators in the United States show that less formal training and experience in online education are correlated with lower perceived self-efficacy among IEP administrators faced with managing online programs, and that IEP administrators overwhelmingly believe additional training would be beneficial. This study examines the needs described by participants and provides recommendations for future training options based on the needs identified.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/cj.34636


AbuSeileek, A. (2012). The effect of computer-assisted cooperative learning methods and group size on the EFL learners’ achievement in communication skills. Computers & Education, 58(1), 231–239.

AbuSeileek, A., & Qatawneh, K. (2013). Effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) oral conversations on English language learners’ discourse functions. Computers & Education, 62, 181–190.

Adkins, S. (2016). The 2015–2020 worldwide digital English language learning market. Monroe, WA: Ambient Insight.

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2016). Online report card: Tracking online education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Survey Research Group & Quahog Research Group.

Aslanian, C., & Clinefelter, D. (2013). Online college students 2013: Comprehensive data on demands and preferences. Louisville, KY: The Learning House, Inc.

Badrul, H. K. (2001). Managing e-learning: Design, delivery, implementation and evaluation. George Washington University, USA.

Bolliger, D. & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103–116.

Brown, J. (2002). Training needs assessment: A must for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel Management, 31(4), 569–578.

Bruland, N. F. (2013). Examining the relationship between interaction and linguistic outcomes: Is the online learning environment a viable alternative to traditional classroom instruction for beginning language learners? (Doctoral dissertation). The Florida State University.

Buitrago, C. R. (2013). Identifying training needs of novice online English language tutors. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 7, 134–153.

Cheng, T. (2015). The reality behind the hype: Online world language teaching and instructional design (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University.

Compton, L. (2009) Preparing language teachers to teach language online: A look at skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(1), 73–99.

Conceicao, S. (2006). Faculty lived experiences in the online environment. Adult Education Quarterly. 57(1), 26–45.

Durán-Cerda, D. (2010). Language distance learning for the digital generation. Hispania, 93(1), 108–112.

Ernest, P., & Hopkins, J. (2006). Coordination and teacher development in an online learning environment. CALICO Journal 23(3) (special issue), 551–568.

Fay, R. (2006). Focus on needs analysis: Unit 8 of the distance learning materials for MD708 Course Design for Language Teachers (CDLT). Manchester: The University of Manchester.

Garrison, D. R. (2017). E-learning in the 21st century: A community of inquiry framework for research and practice (3rd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2012). Challenging hegemonies in online learning. Language Learning & Technology, 16(2), 4–13.

Hampel, R., & Stickler, U. (2005). New skills for new classrooms: Training tutors to teach languages online. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 311–326.

Hogan, R. L., & McKnight, M. (2007). Exploring burnout among university online instructors: An initial investigation. Internet and Higher Education, 10, 117–124.

Kampov-Polevoi, J. (2010). Considerations for supporting faculty in transitioning a course to online format. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 13(2). Retrieved May 2017 from

Kraut, R. (2017). The development of L2 reading skills: A case study from an eight-week intensive English program course. Dialogues: An Interdisciplinary Journal of English Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 25–43.

Lawrence, G. (2013). A working model for intercultural learning and engagement in collaborative online language learning environments. Intercultural Education, 24(4), 303–314.

Lepetit, D., & Cichocki, W. (2005). Teaching languages to future health professionals: A needs assessment study. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 384–396). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Long, M. H. (2005). Methodological issues in learner needs analysis. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp.19–76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miles, M., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. London: Sage Publications.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108, 1017–1054.

O’Dowd, R. (2009). Entering the world of online foreign language education: Challenging and developing teacher identities. In R. Goodfellow & M. Lamy (Eds.), Learning cultures in online education. London: Continuum.

Parker, K., Lenhart, A., & Moore, K. (2011, Aug 28). The digital revolution and higher education. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Roblyer, M. D., Porter, M., Bielefeldt, T., & Donaldson, M. (2009). ‘Teaching online made me a better teacher’: Studying the impact of virtual course experiences on teachers’ face-to-face practice. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 25(4), 121–126.

Salcedo, C. (2010). Comparative analysis of learning outcomes in face-to-face foreign language classes vs. language lab and online. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 43–54.

Shachar, M., & Neumann, Y. (2010). Twenty years of research on the academic performance differences between traditional and distance learning: Summative meta-analysis and trend examination. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 318–334.

Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Li, C. S. (2005). Increasing access to higher education: A study of the diffusion of online teaching among 913 college faculty. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 6(2).

Stickler, U., & Hampel, R. (2015). Transforming teaching: New skills for online language learning spaces. In R. Hampel & U. Stickler (Eds.), Developing online language teaching: Research-based pedagogies and reflective practices (pp. 63–77). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Travis, J., & Rutherford, G. (2012–2013). Administrative support of faculty preparation and interactivity in online teaching: Factors in student success. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 30(1), 30–44.

UPCEA. (2017, February 22). The intersection of online learning and international higher education [webinar]. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Vesselinov, R., & Grego, J. (2012). Duolingo effectiveness study: Final report. Retrieved from

Vorobel, O., & Kim, D. (2012). Language teaching at a distance: An overview of research. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 548–562.

Wang, S. (2015). Online vs. on-campus: An analysis of course prices of U.S. educational institutions. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 18(2).

Wickersham, L. & McElhany, J. (2010). Bridging the divide: Reconciling administrator and faculty concerns regarding online education. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 11(1), 1–12.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email:

Privacy Policy