Comparative Islamic Studies, Vol 8, No 1-2 (2012)

Salafism, State-Politics, and the Question of “Extremism” in Ethiopia

Terje Østebø
Issued Date: 8 Jul 2014

Abstract


The Muslim demonstrations in Addis Ababa 2012–2013 have intensified claims that Islam in Ethiopia is becoming increasingly radicalized, and it is particularly the Salafis who are labeled as the “extremists”. My argument is that the word “extremism” is not very fruitful for understanding these developments or Salafism as a phenomenon. The intention of this article is to analyze Ethiopian Salafism as a product of both trans-local ideological impetuses and local particularities, and to demonstrate how these factors have proved pivotal the Salafis detachment from public and political life.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/cis.v8i1-2.165

References


Aaron Maasho. “Ethiopian Muslims Protest Government ‘Interference’.” Reuters, May 11, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/11/ozatp-ethiopia-religion-idAFJOE84A00W20120511?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true (accessed February 5, 2013).
Al-Fahad, Abdulaziz H. “From Exclusivism to Accomodation: Doctrinal and Legal Evolution of Wahhabism.” New York University Law Review 79(2), (2004): 485–519.
Alem Zele-Alem. “Saudi Arabia’s Whahabism and the Threat to Ethiopia’s National Security.” 2003. http://www.ethiomedia.com/press/wahabism_threat_to_ethiopia.html (accessed 25 October).
“As Muslim Protest Resumes, the New PM Renews Threats.” The Gulele Post, September 2, 2012. http://www.gulelepost.com/2012/09/22/as-muslim-protest-resumes-the-new-pm-renews-threats/ (accessed February 5, 2013).
Bauer Oumer. “The Development of Islamic Propagation (Da’wa) in Addis Ababa and Its Surroundings.” MA-thesis in History, Addis Ababa University, 2006.
Bonnefoy, Laurent. Salafism in Yemen: Transnationalism and Religious Identity. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
“Briefing: Ethiopia’s Muslim Protests.” IRIN-News, November 15, 2012. http://www.irinnews.org/report/96787/Briefing-Ethiopia-s-Muslim-protests (accessed February 5, 2012).
Cook, Michael. “On the Origin of Wahhabism.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2(2), (1992): 191–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1356186300002376
Commins, David. The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. London: Tauris, 2006.
Davison, William. “Four People Die after Ethiopian Muslims Attack Police Station.” Bloomberg News, 2012. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-04-30/four-people-die-after-ethiopian-muslims-attack-police-station.html (accessed May 2, 2012).
Delong-Bas, Natana J. Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
de Waal, Alex, ed. Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa. London: Hurst, 2004.
Dereje Feyissa. “Accommodation, Tolerance or Forbearance? The Politics of Representing Ethiopia’s Religious Past.” Paper presented at the The 4th European Conference on African Studies, Uppsala, June 14–18, 2011a.
Dereje Feyissa. “The Transnational Politics of the Ethiopian Muslim Diaspora.” Ethnic and Racial Studies (2011b): Online version.
Erich, Marquardt. “Al-Qaeda’s Threat to Ethiopia.” TerrorismMonitor 3(3), (2005): 3–6.
Erlich, Haggai. Saudi Arabia and Ethiopia: Islam, Christianity, and Politics Entwined. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
“Ethiopia Charges 29 Muslims under Anti-terror Law.” Nazret.com, October 29, 2012. http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2012/10/29/ethiopia-charges-29-muslims-under-anti-terror-law (accessed February 5, 2013).
“Ethiopia: Prominent Muslims Detained in Crackdown.” Human Rights Watch, August 15, 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/08/15/ethiopia-prominent-muslims-detained-crackdown (accessed February 5, 2013).
“Ethiopia: Terrorism Law Used to Crush Free Speech.” Human Rights Watch, 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/06/27/ethiopia-terrorism-law-used-crush-free-speech (accessed February 28, 2013).
Hamzeh, Nizar A., and Hrair R. Dekmejian. “A Sufi Response to Political Islamism: Al-Ahbash of Lebanon.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 28(2), (1996): 217–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020743800063145
Haustein, Jürg, and Terje Østebø. “EPRDF’s Revolutionary Democracy and Religious Plurality: Islam and Christianity in Post-Derg Ethiopia.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 5(4), (2011): 755–772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2011.642539
Haykel, Bernard. “On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Roel Meijer, 33–57. London: Hurst, 2009.
Hegghammer, Thomas. “Jihadi-Salafis or Revolutionaries? On Religion and Politics in the Study of Militant Islamism.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Roel Meijer, 244–266. London: Hurst, 2009.
Kabha, Mustafa, and Haggai Erlich. “Al-Habash and Wahhabiyya: Interpretations of Islam.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 38(4), (2006): 519–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020743806412459
Lacroix, Stéphane. Awakening Islam: The Politics of Religious Dissent in Contemporary Saudi Arabia. Cambrdge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674061071
Lacroix, Stéphane. “Between Revolution and Apoliticism: Nasir Al-Din Al-Albani and His Impact on the Shaping of Contemporary Salafism.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Roel Meijer, 58–80. London: Hurst, 2009.
Loimeier, Roman. Islamic Reform and Political Change in Northern Nigeria. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1997.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Constitutional Rights for Religion and the Rule of Law.” Aiga Forum, April 27, 2012. http://aigaforum.com/articles/constitution-religion-rule.php (accessed May 2, 2012).
Nega Aba Jebel. “The History of the Awaliyya School 1961–1986.” BA-thesis in History, Addis Ababa University, 1986.
Olivetti, Vincenzo. Terrors’ Source: The Ideology of Wahhabi-Salafism and Its Consequences. Birmingham: Amadeus Books, 2002.
Østebø, Terje. “Islam and State Relations in Ethiopia: From Containment to the Production of a “Governmental Islam.” Journal of American Academy of Religion 81(3), (2013a): 1029–1060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/lft060
Østebø, Terje. “Postscript.” In Muslim Ethiopia: The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism, ed. Patrick Desplat and Terje Østebø. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013b.
Østebø, Terje. Localising Salafism: Religious Change among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
Østebø, Terje. “Growth and Fragmentation: The Salafi Movement in Contemporary Bale, Ethiopia.” In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, edited by Roel Meijer, 342–363. London: Hurst, 2009.
Østebø, Terje. “The Question of Becoming: Islamic Reform Movements in Contemporary Ethiopia.” Journal of Religion in Africa 38(4), (2008): 416–446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006608X323559
Shinn, David. “Ethiopia: Governance and Terrorism.” In Battling Terrorism in the Horn of Africa, edited by Robert I. Rotberg, 93–118. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.
Shinn, David. “Fighting Terrorism in East Africa and the Horn.” Foreign Service Journal September issue (2004): 36–42.
Yemane Nagish. “Wahabiya Labelled as Extremist.” The Reporter, 2011. http://thereporterethiopia.com/News/wahabiya-labeled-extremist.html (accessed October 13, 2011).
Yuunus Hajji Mul’ataa. “Five Killed as Ethiopian Muslim Protest Continue.” Ethiomedia.com, April 28, 2012. http://www.ethiomedia.com/2012_report/3744.html (accessed May 2, 2012).
Yuunus Hajji Mul’ataa. “Muslim Protests Engulf Ethiopia; Gov’t Expels Two Arab ‘Jihadists’.” Ethiomedia.com, May 6, 2012. http://www.ethiomedia.com/2012_report/3773.html (accessed February 5, 2013).






Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy