Comparative Islamic Studies, Vol 10, No 2 (2014)

Relations between Rulers and Ruled in the Medieval Maghrib: The “Social Contract” in the Almoravid and Almohad Centuries, 1050–1250

Amira K Bennison
Issued Date: 24 Mar 2017

Abstract


This article approaches the notion of an Islamic social contract from the perspective of the Berber inhabitants of the Maghrib and their concern that the state should be just, with a particular focus on the period between 1050 and 1250 when the region was ruled by two successsive indigenous imperial regimes, the Almoravids and the Almohads. It explores the gradual implantation of ideas of Islamic statehood in the region, their intersection with earlier indigenous beliefs and social practices, and the “naturalization” of Islamic philosophical ideas developed in the ʿAbbasid East and al Andalus in the very different environment of the Maghrib. Two ideas of particular salience to the discussion are the Almoravid idea of a Mālikī “Commander of Truth or Law,” the amīr al-ḥaqq, and Almohad references to a utopian perfect city or polis, al-madīna al-fāḍila, in the context of their recognition of their spiritual father, Ibn Tūmart, as the mahdī.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/cis.31619

References


ʿAbdūn al-Tujībī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. 2009. Risāla fīʾl-Qaḍāʿ waʾl-Ḥisba. Edited by Muṣtafā al-Ṣamadī. Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm.


Abī Zarʿ, ʿAlī b. 1999. Al-Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawḍ al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al-Maghrib wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās. Edited by Abdelwahab Benmansour. Second edition. Rabat: Imprimerie Royale.


al-Bakrī, Abū ʿUbayd. 1965 [1857]. Description de l’Afrique septentrionale par el Bekri. Edited by W. MacGuckin de Slane. Paris: Maisonneuve [Algiers: Imprimerie du Gouvernement].


al-Fārābī, The Political Writings (Many versions, which one? full ref).


al-Farābī, Mabādiʾ (Many versions, which one? full ref)


Anon. 1979. [Ibn Simāk al-Mālaqī]. Kitāb al-Ḥulal al-Mawshiyya fī Dhikr al-Akhbār al-Marrākushiyya. Tunis: Maṭbaʿat al-Taqaddum al-Islāmiyya.


Beck, Herman. 1989. l’Image d’Idrīs II, ses descendants de Fās et la politique sharīfienne des sultans marīnides, 656–869/1258–1465. Leiden: Brill.



Bennison, Amira K. 2002. Jihad and its Interpretations in Precolonial Morocco. London: Curzon.


Bennison, Amira K. 2010. “The necklace of al-Shifāʾ’: ʿAbbasid borrowings in the Islamic West.” Oriens 38: 249–273. https://doi.org/10.1163/187783710X536734


Bennison, Amira K. 2011. “ʿAbd al-Qādir’s jihād in the light of the western Islamic jihād tradition.” Studia Islamica (new series) 2: 7–28. https://doi.org/10.1163/19585705-12341258


Bennison, Amira K. 2016. The Almoravid and Almohad Empires. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Brett, Michael. 1999. “The Islamisation of Morocco from the Arabs to the Almoravids.” In Michael Brett, Ibn Khaldūn and Medieval Maghrib. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum.


Buresi, Pascal and Hicham El Aallaoui. 2013. Governing the Empire: Provincial Administration in the Almohad Caliphate (1224–1269). Leiden: Brill.


Butterworth, C. 2001. Alfarabi The Political Writings: Selected Aphorisms and other Texts. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Chahlane, A. 2006. “Logique et politique dans les commentaires d’Averroes.” In Écriture et reécriture des textes philosophiques médiévaux, edited by J. Hamesse and O. Weijers, 1–22. Turnhout: Brepols. https://doi.org/10.1484/M.TEMA-EB.3.4154


Cook, Michael. 2000. Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Cornell, Vincent. 1987. “Understanding is the mother of ability: Responsibility and action in the doctrine of Ibn Tumart.” Studia Islamica 66: 71–103. https://doi.org/10.2307/1595911


Fierro, Maribel. 1994. “The qāḍī as ruler.” In Saber Religioso y Poder Político en el Islam, 71–116. Madrid: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional.


Fierro, Maribel. 2000. “Spiritual alienation and political activism: The ġurabāʾ in al-Andalus during the sixth/twelfth century.” Arabica 47(2): 230–260. 232.


Gaiser, Adam. 2010. Muslims, Scholars, Soldiers: The Origin and Elaboration of the Ibāḍī Imamate Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Walzer, R. 1985. Al-Farabi on the Perfect State: Abū Naṣr al-Fārābī’s ‘Mabādiʾ Ārāʾ Ahl al-Madīna al-Fāḍila’. Oxford: Clarendon Press.


García-Sanjuán, Alejandro. 2008. “Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as portrayed by the Islamic jurist Ibn ʿAbdūn.” Medieval Encounters 14: 78–98.


Ghouirgate, Mehdi. 2014. L’Ordre Almohade (1120–1269): une nouvelle lecture anthropologique. Toulouse: Presses universitaires du Mirail.


Gomez-Rivas, Camilo. 2014. Law and the Islamization of the Maghrib under the Almoravids. Leiden: Brill.


Ibn Bājja. 2011. “The Governance of the Solitary.” Translated by Lawrence Berman, in Medieval Political Philosophy: A Sourcebook, edited by J. Parens and J Macfarland, 97–104. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Ibn ʿIdhārī al-Marrākushī. 2009. al-Bayān al-Mughrib fī Akhbār al-Andalus waʾl-Maghrib. Edited by ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ʿAlī. Volume 4. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya.


Ibn al-Qaṭṭān. 1990. Naẓm al-Jumān li-Tartīb mā Salafa min Akhbār al-Zamān. Edited by Maḥmūd ʿAlī Makkī. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī.


Ibn Tūmart. 2010. “Translatio studii et imperii.” Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies 2(2): 175–194.


Lagardère, Vincent. 1989. Les Almoravides I. Paris: L’Harmattan.


Lévi-Provençal, E., editor and translator. 1947. Séville musulmane au début du XII siècle. Le traité d’Ibn ʿAbdun sur la vie urbaine et les corps de métiers. Paris: Maisonneuve.


Lévi-Provençal, Evariste. 1955. “Le titre souverain des Almoravides et sa légitimation par le califat ʿabbāside.” Arabica 2(3): 265–280. https://doi.org/10.1163/157005855X00013


Marlow, Louise. 1997. Hierarchy and Egalitarianism in Islamic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Marsham, Andrew. 2009. Rituals of Islamic Monarchy: Accession and Succession in the First Muslim Empire. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Martinez-Gros, Gabriel. 1993. “Le gouvernement du juge: Ibn ʿAbdun et Séville au debut du XIIeme siècle.” In Idées de villes, villes idéales, edited by Thierry Bonzon, 37–49. Fontaney: Saint Cloud.


Prevost, Virginie. 2011. “ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Rustum al-Fārisī. Une tentative de biographie du premier imam de Tāhart.” Der Islam 86: 44–64. https://doi.org/10.1515/islam.2011.014


Rouighi, Ramzi. 2011. “The Berbers of the Arabs.” Studia Islamica 106(1): 49–76. https://doi.org/10.1163/19585705-12341252







Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy