Implicit Religion, Vol 7, No 3 (2004)

The Moods of Marianne: Of Hijabs, Nikes, Implicit Religion and Post-Modernity

Guy Ménard
Issued Date: 1 Apr 2007


This paper discusses the question of secularity in France, in the perspective of

the new law passed by the French government in 2004 (inspired by the

Government-commissioned Stasi Report), that sets out to prohibit the presence

of all religious symbols in the public sphere, notably in the country’s public

schools. The paper does not intend to discuss the political tenets of the debate. It

rather raises an issue that is at once more limited and essentially theoretical—

yet with important consequences. A well-known French sociologist of religion,

Jean Baubérot, argues that ‘wearing a Muslim veil, today, is neither more nor

less than wearing Nike running shoes’. This paper suggests that the perspectives

opened by the notion of ‘implicit religion’ should bring us to inverse Baubérot’s

idea and to consider seriously that, today, for a growing number of individuals,

wearing Nikes is not essentially different from wearing a hijab—and that it is

therefore potentially just as important and significant, from the perspective ofimplicit religion. Thus it questions the very limits of the definition of religion

that, at least implicitly, underscores the French legislation and, more generally,

the very conception of modern secularity.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/imre.v7i3.246


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email:

Privacy Policy