Journal for the Academic Study of Religion, Vol 30, No 3 (2017)

Re-framing Religious Identity and Belief: Gen X Women and the Catholic Church

Tracy McEwan, Kathleen McPhillips
Issued Date: 31 May 2018

Abstract


Gen X women grew up in the Catholic Church in the climate of culturaland theological change brought about by the Second Vatican Council.Given the Catholic Church’s attempt to move into the modern world, itmight be expected that such changes would result in an increase of participationby women in the Church. In fact, the opposite has happened andthe participation of Gen X Catholic women in Church life is at substantiallylow levels. This article reviews the current research in this area, and seeksto contextualise the experiences of Gen X women in the broader socialchanges that have characterised late modernity. It contends that currentmethods of examining the religious identity of Gen X Catholic women failto understand the complexity of reasons for non-participation. Shifting theresearch focus beyond a simple model of church participation will shedimportant light on the sociology of Catholicism and religious identity inAustralia.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/jasr.33612

References


Australian Bureau Statistics (ABS). 2017. 2071.0 Census of Population and Housing: Reecting Australia—Stories from the Census, 2016—Religion. Online: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/2071.02016?OpenDocument (accessed 1 August 2017).

Althaus-Reid, Marcella M.. 2000. On Not Looking Like Christ… Catholic Women’s Ordination 18: 2-7. Online: http://www.womenpriests.org/theology/marcella.asp (accessed 1 November 2016).

Ammerman, Nancy T.. 2014. Finding Religion in Everyday Life. Sociology of Religion 75(2): 189-207. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/sru013.

Aquin O’Neil, Mary. 2015. Roles for Women in the Church. In Catholic Women Speak: Bringing Our Gifts to the Table, edited by the Catholic Women Speak Network, 161-63. Paulist Press, Mahwah, NJ.

Australian Catholic Bishops Conference (ACBC). 2016. National Ofce for the Participation of Women. Online: http://www.opw.catholic.org.au/ (accessed 1 May 2017).

Australian Catholic Bishops Conference (ACBC) - Pastoral Research Ofce (PRO) and Vatican Library. 2016. Sacrament Statistics from Yearbook of the Church: 1993–2012. (unpublished).

Beaudoin, Tom. 1998. Virtual Faith: The Irreverent Spiritual Quest of Generation X. Wiley, San Francisco, CA. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/ijpt.2011.024.

Beaudoin, Tom. 2011. Secular Catholicism and Practical Theology. International Journal of Practical Theology 15(1): 22-37.

Bengsten, Vern L., Norella M. Putney and Susan Harris. 2013. Families and Faith: How Religion Is Passed Down across Generations. Oxford University Press, New York.

Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Penguin Books, London.

Brown, Callum G.. 2012 . Religion and the Demographic Revolution: Women and Secularisation in Canada, Ireland, UK and USA since the 1960s. Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK.

Case, Mary Ann. 2016. The Role of the Popes in the Invention of Complementarity and the Anathematization of Gender. Religion and Gender 6(2): 155-72. Doi: https://doi.org/10.18352/rg.10124.

Catholic Church. 1983. The Code of Canon Law in English Translation. Collins, London.

Coblentz, Jessica. 2017. Ghosts in the Ofce: The Ecclesiological and Soteriological Implications of Stereotype Threat among Women in Catholic Theology. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 33(1): 127-35.

Coupland, Douglas. 1991. Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture. Abacus, London.

Davis, Kimberley, and Brian Lucas . 2009. The Australian Catholic Bishops Conference and the Participation of Women in the Catholic Church: Ten Years On. The Australasian Catholic Record 86(2): 145-60.

Dillon, Michele. 1999. Catholic Identity: Balancing Reason, Faith, and Power. Cambridge University Press, New York. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752728.

Dixon, Robert. 2004. Acceptance of Key Catholic Teachings by Generation X Mass Attenders. The Australasian Catholic Record 81(2): 131-43.

Dixon, Robert. 2014. The Changing Face of the Catholic Community in Australia: Challenges for Catholic Social Service Organisations. In Listening, Learning and Leading: The Impact of Catholic Identity and Mission, 123-39. Connor Court Publishing, Ballarat, VIC.

Dixon, Robert, Trudy Dantis and Stephen Reid . 2015. Social Prole of the Catholic Community in Australia Based on the 2011 Australian Census. Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Pastoral Research Ofce, Fitzroy, VIC.

Dixon, Robert, Stephen Reid and Marilyn Chee . 2013. Mass Attendance in Australia: A Critical Moment. Australian Catholic Bishops Conference, Pastoral Research Ofce, Fitzroy, VIC.

Doogue, Geraldine. 2008. Compass: Catholic Dilemma Part 2—Women: The Silenced Majority, 28 July 2008. Distributed by ABC Television.

Ecklund, Elaine Howard . 2003. Catholic Women Negotiate Feminism: A Research Note. Sociology of Religion 64(4): 515-24. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/3712339.

Faggioli, Massimo. 2012. Vatican II: The Battle for Meaning. Kindle edn. Paulist Press, New York.

Flory, Richard W., and Donald E. Miller . 2008. Finding Faith: The Spiritual Quest of the Post-Boomer Generation. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.

Gibson, Diane. 2003. Getting Better Will Take Some Time: The Effects of Social Policy on Four Generations of Older Women. Australian Feminist Studies 18(41): 173-86. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/08164640301731.

Goldie, Rosemary. 1998. From a Roman Window: Five Decades: The World, the Church and the Catholic Laity. HarperCollinsReligious, Blackburn, VIC.

Helman, Ivy A.. 2012. Women and the Vatican: An Exploration of Ofcial Documents. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy. 2012. Feminist Research. In Handbook of Feminist Research: Theory and Praxis, edited Sharlene Nagy Hesse-Biber, 2-26. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hinsdale, Mary Ann. 2015. A Feminist Reection on Postconciliar Catholic Ecclesiology. In A Church with Open Doors: Catholic Ecclesiology for the Third Millen­nium, edited by R.R. Gaillardetz and E.P. Hahnenberg. Epub edn. Liturgical Press, Collegeville, MN. Doi:https://doi.org/10.3138/tjt.4202e.

Hinsdale, Mary Ann. 2016. Vatican II and Feminism: Recovered Memories and Refreshed Hopes. Toronto Journal of Theology 32(2): 251-72.

Imperatori-Lee, Natalia. 2015. Father Knows Best: Theological ‘Mansplaining’ and the Ecclesial War on Women. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 31(2): 89-108. Doi: https://doi.org/10.2979/jfemistudreli.31.2.89.

International Theological Commission. 2014. Sensus Fidei in the Life of the Church. Online: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/cti_documents/rc_cti_20140610_sensus-dei_en.html (accessed 20 April 2017).

Johnson, Elizabeth A.. 2002. Imaging God, Embodying Christ: Women as a Sign of the Times. In The Church Women Want: Catholic Women in Dialogue, edited by Elizabeth A. Johnson, 45-59. Crossroad, New York.

Johnson, Elizabeth A.. 2006. Truly Our Sister: A Theology of Mary in the Communion of Saints. Bloomsbury Academic, New York.

Luckman, Harriet A.. 2006. Vatican II and the Role of Women. In Vatican II: Forty Years Later, edited by William Madges, 78-99. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY.

Macdonald, Marie, Peter Carpenter, Sandie Cornish, Micheal Costigan, Robert Dixon, Margaret Malone, Kevin Manning and Sonia Wagner . 1999. Woman and Man: One in Christ Jesus. Harper Collins, Sydney, NSW.

Mason, Michael, Andrew Singleton, and Ruth Webber . 2007. The Spirit of Generation Y: Young People’s Spirituality in a Changing Australia. John Garratt Publishing, Mulgrave, VIC.

Massam, Katharine . 2012. Catholic Feminism: Pain, Prayer and Paradox. In Preachers, Prophets and Heretics: Anglican Women’s Ministry, 224-51. New South Publishing, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, NSW.. 2014. The Catholic Church. The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia. Online: http://www.womenaustralia.info/leaders/biogs/WLE0440b.htm (accessed 20 April 2017).

McEnroy, Carmel E.. 1996. Guests in Their Own House: The Women of Vatican II. Crossroad, New York.

McGuire, Meredith B.. 2002. Religion: The Social Context. 5th edn. Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0037768616628789.

McGuire, Meredith B.. 2008. Lived Religion: Faith and Practice in Everyday Life. Oxford University Press, New York.

McGuire, Meredith B.. 2016. Individual Sensory Experiences, Socialized Senses, and Everyday Lived Religion in Practice. Social Compass 64(2): 152-62.

McKinley, Diana, and Ruth Webber . 2012. Important Aspects of Catholic Identity for Committed Generations X and Y Catholics. Australasian Catholic Record 89(3): 322-32.

McPhillips, Kathleen. 2017. Royal Commission Hearings Show Catholic Church Faces a Massive Reform Task. The Conversation. 13 February. Online: https://theconversation.com/royal-commission-hearings-show-catholic-church-faces-a-massive-reform-task-72809 (accessed 20 April 2017).

NSW Government. 2012–14. The NSW Special Commission of Inquiry. Online: https://www.dpc.nsw.gov.au/announcements/scoi_child_sexual_abuse_allegations_in_the_hunter_region (accessed 28 January 2018).

The Parliament of Victoria . 2012–13. Inquiry into the handling of Child Abuse by Religious and Other Organisations. Online: https://www.parliament.vic.gov.au/fcdc/article/1789 (accessed 28 January 2018).

Pew Research Center . 2017. The Changing Global Religious Landscape. Online: http://www.pewforum.org/2017/04/05/the-changing-global-religious-landscape/ (accessed 1 August 2017).

Pope Francis. 2013. Pope Francis—General Audience, 18 September 2013. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/audiences/2013/documents/papa-francesco_20130918_udienza-generale.html (accessed 1 April 2017).

Pope Francis. 2016. Amoris Laetitia. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/apost_exhortations/documents/papa-francesco_esortazione-ap_20160319_amoris-laetitia.html (accessed 1 April 2017).

Pope John XXIII. 1963. Pacem in Terris. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem.html (accessed 1 April 2017).

Pope John Paul II. 1988. Mulieris Dignitatem. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_letters/1988/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_19880815_mulieris-dignitatem.html (accessed 1 April 2017).

Pope John Paul II. 1995a. Evangelium Vitae. Online: http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031995_evangelium-vitae.html (accessed 10 January 2017).

Pope John Paul II. 1995b. Letter of John Paul II to Women. Online: https://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/letters/1995/documents/hf_jp-i_let_29061995_women.html (accessed 10 January 2017).

Possamai, Adam. 2009. Sociology of Religion for Generations X and Y. Acumen, Durham, UK.

Radford Ruether, Rosemary. 1983. Sexism and God-talk: Toward a Feminist Theology. SCM Press, Suffolk, UK.

Roberts, Ellouise. 2013. Women in the Australian Workforce: A 2013 Update. Online: http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/FlagPost/2013/March/Women_in_the_Australian_workforce_A_2013_update (accessed 1 April 2017).

Ross, Susan A.. 2013. Joys and Hopes, Griefs and Anxieties: Catholic Women Since Vatican II, New Theology Review 25(2): 30-38.

Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. 2012–17. Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse. Online: https://www.childabuseroyalcommission.gov.au (accessed 28 January 2018).

Rymarz, Richard. 2004. Lost Generation: The Cultures of Gen X Catholics. The Australasian Catholic Record 81(2): 144-52. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1558/jate.v4i1.93.

Rymarz, Richard. 2007. Generation X Catholics as Adult Learners: Some Considerations for Theological Education. Journal of Adult Theological Education 4(1): 93-102.

Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 1994. In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins. Crossroad, New York.

Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth. 2016. Congress of Women: Religion, Gender, and Kyriarchal Power. FSR Books, Indianapolis, IN.

Sheehan, Mary Ellen. 2000. Vatican II and the Ecclesial Ministry of Women: Ongoing Challenges in the Roman Catholic Church. Toronto Journal of Theology 16(1): 51-61. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3138/tjt.16.1.51.

Smith, Christian, Kyle Longest, Jonathon Hill and Kari Christoffersen. 2014. Young Catholic America: Emerging Adults In, Out Of, and Gone from the Church. Oxford University Press, New York. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199341078.001.0001.

Thiessen, Joel, and Sarah Wilkins-Laamme. 2017. Becoming a Religious None: Irreligious Socialization and Disafliation. Journal for the Scientic Study of Religion 56(1): 64-82. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12319.

Vatican Council. 2009a. Dogmatic Constititution on Divine Revelation (Dei verbum). In The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index 2009, 77-90. St Pauls Publications, Stratheld, NSW.

Vatican Council. 2009b. Dogmatic Constititution on the Church (Lumen gentium). In The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index 2009, 17-76. St Pauls Publications, Stratheld, NSW.

Vatican Council. 2009c. Pastoral Constititution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et spes). In The Documents of Vatican II: With Notes and Index 2009, 125-98. St Pauls Publications, Stratheld, NSW.

Wagner, Sonia. 2010. Man and Woman: One in Jesus Christ—A Retrosepective. Catholic Social Justice Series 67: 7-15.

Wilkins-Laamme, Sarah. 2016. Protestant and Catholic Distinctions in Secularization, Journal of Contemporary Religion 31(2): 165-80. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2016.1152660.
Wuthnow, Robert. 2010. After the Baby Boomers: How Twenty- and Thirty-Somethings Are Shaping the Future of American Religion. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

 


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy