Journal of World Popular Music, Vol 4, No 2 (2017)

Haters beyond the Hate: Stigma and Prejudice against Funk Carioca on YouTube

Simone Pereira de Sá, Simone Evangelista Cunha
Issued Date: 6 Dec 2017

Abstract


For almost 30 years, funk carioca has been one of the most “popular” musical genres among working-class young adults in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. However, funk’s consolidation as a musical expression does not imply wide cultural acknowledgement. Associated with “bad taste” in music by middle-class music critics in Brazil and bearing connotations to violence and sex, the musical genre has been one of the most persecuted by the media and the police forces, who have repeatedly used moral panic arguments to address the phenomenon. During the last ten years, funk carioca obtained national visibility in Brazil through its circulation on social network sites and YouTube. However, the spread of funk music through these online spaces did not help to diminish the prejudice against the genre. On the contrary, social networks have been used by “haters” of this musical genre to express their prejudice against funk. Within this context, the article will discuss taste, stigma and value disputes around funk carioca on YouTube. The analysis will focus on comments posted by haters of funk about the ‘Passinho do Volante’ music video, which was the second most viewed music video on YouTube in Brazil in 2013. To do so, we collected, organized and analysed the most aggressive comments according to four categories: (1) racial prejudice, (2) social-territorial prejudice, (3) aesthetic criticism and repudiation of funk as cultural expression, and (4) funk popularization as a “threat” to the country’s progress. Our theoretical and methodological discussions make reference to the sociology of music on value and taste, and, more specifically, Antoine Hennion’s discussion on taste performance, as well as to actor-network theory related to the theoretical approach of cartography of controversies.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 ) HTML (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/jwpm.33202

References


Amaral, Adriana and Camila Monteiro. 2013. “Esse roquero não curte: performance de gosto e fãs de música no Unidos Contra o Rock do Facebook” [“These rockers don’t like: taste as performance and music fans at Facebook fanpage United Against Rock”]. Revista Famecos 1/5: 446–71. https://doi.org/10.15448/1980-3729.2013.2.15130

Anderson, Chris. 2006. A cauda longa: do mercado de massa para o mercado de nicho [The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More]. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

Baym, Nancy. 2013. “Fãs ou Amigos? Enxergando a mídia social como fazem os músicos” [“Fans or friends?: seeing social media audiences as musicians do”]. Revista Matrizes 5/1: 13–46. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1982-8160.v7i1p13-46

Blacking, John. 1995 [1983]. How Musical is Man? Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Bruno, Fernanda. 2012. “Rastros digitais: o que eles se tornam quando vistos sob a perspectiva da teoria ator-rede” [“Digital traces from the perspective of actor-network theory”]. Revista Famecos 5/9: 681–704.

Burgess, Jean and Joshua Green. 2009. YouTube e a Revolução Digital: como o maior fenômeno da cultura participativa transformou a mídia e a sociedade [YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture]. São Paulo: Aleph.

DeNora, Tia. 2003. After Adorno: Rethinking Music Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489426

Fischerman, Diego. 2004. Efecto Beethoven. Complejidad y valor en la música de tradición popular [Beethoven Effect: Complexity and Value in Music of Popular Tradition]. Buenos Aires: Paidos Iberica.

Fontanella, Fernando. 2005. “A estética do Brega: cultura de consumo e o corpo nas periferias do Recife” [“The aesthetics of Brega: consumer culture and body in Recife’s peripheries”]. Master’s thesis. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.

—2009. Fontanella, Fernando. “O que é um meme na Internet? Proposta para uma problemática da memesfera” [“What is a meme on the Internet? Proposal for a problematic of the memesphere”]. Paper presented at III Simpósio Nacional da ABCiber. São Paulo: Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM).

Freire Filho, João and Michael Herschmann. 2005. “Mídia, pânico moral e o funk carioca”. In Comunicação, Cultura & Consumo. A (des)construção do espetáculo contemporâneo [Communication, Culture & Consumption: The (Dis)construction of the Contemporary Spectacle], edited by João Freire Filho and Micael Herschmann, 241–54. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. E-Papers.

Frith, Simon. 1998. Performing Rites: On the Value of Popular Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Goffman, Erving. 1988. Estigma: notas sobre a manipulação da identidade deteriorada [Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity]. Rio de Janeiro: LTC.

Gray, Jonathan. 2003. “New Audiences, New Textualities: Antifans and Non-fans”. International Journal of Cultural Studies 1/3: 64–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877903006001004

Hennion, Antoine. 2001. “Music Lovers: Taste as Performance”. Theory, Culture, Society 18/5: 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/02632760122051940

—2002. “Music and Mediation: Towards a New Sociology of Music”. In The Cultural Study of Music: A Critical Introduction, edited by Martin Clayton and Trevor Herbert, 80–91. London: Routledge.

Herschmann, M. 2000. “As imagens das galeras funk na imprensa” [“Images of galeras funk in press”]. In Linguagens da violência [Language of Violence], edited by Carlos Alberto M. Pereira, 163–93. Rio de Janeiro: Rocco.

Holzbach, Ariane, Thaiane Oliveira, Simone E. Cunha and Melina A. S. Silva. 2015. “Metal x Funk: Disputas de gênero na cultura pop a partir do canal Mamilos Molengas” (Metal x Funk: genre disputes in pop culture at Mamilos Molengas channel). In Cultura Pop [Pop Culture], edited by Simone Pereira de Sá, Rodrigo Carreiro and Rogério Ferraz, 131–50. Salvador/Brasilia: UFBA/Compós.

Janotti Jr, Jeder. 2005. “Dos gêneros textuais, dos discursos e das canções: uma proposta de análise da música popular massiva a partir da noção de gênero midiático” [“About textual genres, speeches and songs: a proposal of analysis of mass popular music from the notion of media genre”]. Paper presented at XIV COMPÓS. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Latour, Bruno. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lévy, Pierre. 1998. A inteligência coletiva [Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace]. São Paulo: Edições Loyola.

McClary, Susan. 1991. Feminine Endings. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Negroponte, Nicholas. 1995. A vida digital [Being Digital]. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras.

Pereira, Alexandre B. 2014. “Funk Ostentação em São Paulo: Imaginação, consumo, e novas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação” [“‘Funk ostentação’ in São Paulo: imagination, consumption and new information and communication technologies”]. Revista de Estudos Culturais 1/4: 1–17.

Pereira de Sá, Simone. 2007. “Funk carioca: música eletrônica popular brasileira?!” [“Funk carioca: Brazilian popular electronic music?!”]. Revista E-Compós 1/12: 1–18.

—2013. “Apropriações low-tech no funk carioca: a Batalha do passinho e a música popular de periferia” [“Low-tech appropriations in funk carioca genre: Batalha do passinho and the peripheric popular music”]. Revista Fronteiras 1/14: 28–37.

Railton, Diane and Paul Watson. 2011. Music Video and the Politics of Representation. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748633227.001.0001

Recuero, Raquel. 2009. Redes sociais na internet [Internet Social Networks]. Porto Alegre: Sulina.

Rheingold, Howard. 1995. The Virtual Community: Finding Connection in a Computerized World. London: Secker & Wargurg.

Trotta, Felipe and Marco Roxo. 2014. “O gosto musical do Neymar: pagode, funk, sertanejo e o imaginário do popular bem-sucedido” [“The musical taste of Neymar: pagode, funk, sertanejo and the successful popular imaginary”]. Revista ECO-PÓS 10/12: 1–12.

Turkle, Sherry. 1997. La vida em la pantalla [Life on the Screen]. Barcelona: Paidós.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy