PentecoStudies: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Research on the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, Vol 16, No 2 (2017)

Pentecostalism, Open Economic Policy and Sinhala Buddhist nationalism in Sri Lanka

Koji Kawashima
Issued Date: 12 Dec 2017

Abstract


With the introduction of the open economic policy, Sri Lanka became closely connected with the global economy bringing about considerable difficulties to its people. In addition, with the disintegration of the rural community and the dysfunction of family, traditional social and religious systems could not efficiently cope with the growing needs of Buddhists. Under these circumstances, the Pentecostal churches attracted more and more people. Moreover, open economic policy brought about an asymmetrical relationship with the West. With the rapid rise of foreign aid and NGOs, a large number of Sri Lankans came to feel that they were increasingly dependent on the decisions made outside Sri Lanka. As a result, the deep-seated fear that Sinhala Buddhists had of losing their majority status re-emerged. Some activities of Christian NGOs with rather ample foreign funds were misidentified, intentionally or unintentionally under these circumstances, with the general evangelical works of Pentecostals. A discourse of “unethical conversion” was circulated, by which the Sinhala Buddhist nationalists succeeded in inciting the mobs and gaining tacit support from the government and the masses.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/ptcs.31947

References


Amarasingham, L. R. 1980. “Movement among Healers in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of a Sinhalese Patient”. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry 4: 71–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00051944

Ames, M. M. 1964. “Magical-Animism and Buddhism: A Structural Analysis of the Sinhalese Religious System”. Journal of Asian Studies 23: 21–52. https://doi.org/10.2307/2050620

Anderson, A. 2004. An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bartholomeusz, T. J. 2002. In Defense of Dharma: Just-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Berkwitz, S. C. 2008. “Religious Conflict and the Politics of Conversion in Sri Lanka”. In R.I. J. Hackett (ed.), Proselytization Revisited: Rights Talk, Free Markets and Culture Wars. London: Equinox: 199–229.

Burgess, S. M. and E. M. Van Der Maas (eds). 2001. The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Deegalle, M. 2006. “JHU Politics for Peace and a Righteous State”. In M. Deegalle (ed.), Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka. Abingdon: Routledge: 233–54.

Department of Census and Statistics. 2012. “Census of Population and Housing, 2012: Key Findings”. Retrieved from http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/srilanka/drive/Census-2012.pdf (accessed 4 July 2016).

De Silva, R. 1985. Discipling the Cities in Sri Lanka. Peradeniya: Church Growth Research Centre.

DeVotta, N. 1998. “Sri Lanka’s Structural Adjustment Program and Its Impact on Indo-Lanka Relations”. Asian Survey 38(5): 457–93. https://doi.org/10.2307/2645503

DeVotta, N. 2007. Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalist Ideology: Implications for Politics and Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.

Ekanayake, R. de S. (ed.). 1998a. National Church Survey, 1998. Dehiwela: National Christian Evangelical Alliance of Sri Lanka.

Ekanayake, R. de S. (ed.). 1998b. Human Rights and the Christian Community in Sri Lanka. Dehiwela: Christian Consultation of Sri Lanka.

Fernando, U. 2003. The Landscape of NGOs in Sri Lanka: Challenges and Issues. Amsterdam: AGIDS/University of Amsterdam.

Fernando, O. 2014. “Religion’s ‘State Effects’: Evangelical Christianity, Political Legitimacy, and State Formation”. Religion 44(4): 573–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/0048721X.2014.894951

Fleisher, S. L. 1996. “Rethinking Historical Change in Sri Lankan Ritual: Deities, Demons, Sorcery, and the Ritualization of Resistance in the Sinhala Traditions of Suniyam”. Journal of Anthropological Research 52: 29–59. https://doi.org/10.1086/jar.52.1.3630235

Frydenlund, I. 2005. The Sangha and its Relation to the Peace Process in Sri Lanka. PRIO Report. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute.

Gamburd, M. R. 2004. “The Economics of Enlisting: A Village View of Armed Service”. In Winslow and Woost (2004): 151–67.

Goonatilake, S. 2006. Recolonization: Foreign Funded NGOs in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Gunasinghe, N. 2004. “The Open Economy and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in Sri Lanka”. In Winslow and Woost (2004): 99–114.

Gunatilleke, G. 2015. The Chronic and the Acute: Post-War Religious Violence in Sri Lanka. Colombo: International Centre for Ethnic Studies & Equitas.

Herring, R. J. 1987. “Economic Liberalisation Policies in Sri Lanka: International Pressures, Constraints and Supports”. Economic and Political Weekly 22(8): 325–33.

Hettige, S. T. 2004. “Economic Policy, Changing Opportunities for Youth, and the Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka”. In Winslow and Woost (2004): 115–30.

International Crisis Group. 2007. “Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the Elusive Southern Consensus”. Asia Report 141 (7 November). Retrieved from https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/141-sri-lanka-sinhala-nationalism-and-the-elusive-southernconsensus.pdf (accessed 4 November 2017).

Jayawardena, K. 1990. Ethnic and Class Conflicts in Sri Lanka: Some Aspects of Sinhala Buddhist Consciousness over the Past 100 Years. Colombo: Sanjiva Books.

Kapferer, B. 2012. Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Marecek, J. 2006. “Young Women’s Suicide in Sri Lanka: Cultural, Ecological, and Psychological Factors”. Asian Journal of Counselling 13(1): 63–91.

Moonesinghe, L. N. and S. Barraclough. 2007. “Domestic Violence against Women in Sri Lanka: The Role of Primary Health Care in Complementing Human Rights and Legal Responses”. Australian Journal of Primary Health 13(1): 52–60.

Nanayakkara, S. 2007. “Evangelical Christian Dynamics in Sri Lanka”. In Uyangoda (2007b): 147–65.

Richardson Jr, J. M. 2004. “Violent Conflict and the First Half Decade of Open Economy Policies: A Revisionist View”. In Winslow and Woost (2004): 41–72.

Somaratna, G. P. V. 1996. Origins of the Pentecostal Mission in Sri Lanka. Nugegoda: Margaya Fellowship.

Thiruchandran, S. 2012. Women’s Movement in Sri Lanka: History, Trends and Trajectories. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association.

Ueda, N. 1990. “Dentoteki chiryo girei no kanjazo to sono henka: Sri Lanka nanbu no futuma girei no gendaisei” [“Changes in Traditional Healing Rituals and in Types of Patients: Modern Aspects of Exorcist Rituals in Southern Sri Lanka”]. The Japanese Journal of Ethnology 55(3): 269–95.

Uyangoda, J. 2007a. “Soma Thero: Significance of his Life and Death”. In Uyangoda (2007b): 166–80.

Uyangoda, J. (ed.). 2007b. Religion in Context: Buddhism and Socio-Political Change in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association.

Wanigaratne, R. 1997. “The State–NGO Relationship in Sri Lanka: Rights, Interests and Accountability”. In D. Hulme and M. Edwards (eds), NGOs, States and Donors. Too Close for Comfort? Basingstoke: Macmillan: 216–31.

WHO and MHN. 2008. National Report on Violence and Health. Colombo: World Health Organization and Ministry of Healthcare and Nutrition.

Wijeyeratne, R. de S. 2014. Nation, Constitutionalism and Buddhism in Sri Lanka. Abingdon: Routledge.

Winslow, D. and M. D. Woost (eds). 2004. Economy, Culture and Civil War in Sri Lanka. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Woods, O. 2013. “The Spatial Modalities of Evangelical Christian Growth in Sri Lanka: Evangelism, Social Ministry and the Structural Mosaic”. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38(4): 652–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12004

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: info@equinoxpub.com

Privacy Policy