Sociolinguistic Studies, Vol 12, No 3-4 (2018)

Analyzing the production of a non-standard form: Variable use of preterit andar in bogotano Spanish

Maritza Nemogá, Matthew Kanwit
Issued Date: 2 May 2019


Although the Spanish verb andar ‘to walk' has a prescriptively irregular preterit conjugation (e.g., anduve ‘I walked'), adult native speakers may produce an innovative, regularized form (e.g., andé). Nevertheless, researchers have had difficulty documenting this form of variation. The current study presents the first systematic, variationist analysis of andar regularization. We sought to answer three research questions: 1) Do speakers in Bogotá, Colombia produce regularized forms of preterit andar? 2) If so, at what rate do bogotanos produce regularized forms? 3) Do any independent factors predict regularization? We designed a 25-item cloze task in which we manipulated person/number, with 164 bogotanos participating. In addition to providing the first systematic study of andar regularization, we demonstrate that the phenomenon is constrained by independent linguistic and social variables, while appealing to changes in the overall frequency of use of andar diachronically and to the relationship between the frequency of use of each person/number and regularization.

Download Media

PDF Subscribers Only

DOI: 10.1558/sols.33154


Agostini, T. and Schwenter, S. A. (2015) Variable negative concord in Brazilian Portuguese: Acceptability and frequency. Paper presented at the 19th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, September 2015, Champaign-Urbana, IL.

Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá y Secretaría de Tránsito y Transporte (2006) Formulación del Plan Maestro de Movilidad para Bogotá D.C. que incluye ordenamiento de estacionamientos, Caracterización Socioeconómica de Bogotá y la Región. Bogotá. Retrieved from:

Batchelor, R. E. and San José, M. A. (2010) A Reference Grammar of Spanish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doi:

Bentivoglio, P. and Sedano, M. (1989) Haber: ¿Un verbo impersonal? Un estudio sobre el español de Caracas. Estudios sobre el español de América y lingüística afroamericana. Ponencias presentadas en el 45 congreso internacional de americanistas 59–81. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Bybee, J. L. (2006a) From usage to grammar: The mind’s response to repetition. Language 82: 529–551. Doi:

Bybee, J. L. (2006b) Frequency of Use and the Organization of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bybee, J. and Slobin, D. (1982) Rules and schemas in the development and use of the English past tense. Language 58: 265–289. Doi:

Castillo-Trelles, C. (2007) La pluralización del verbo haber impersonal en el español yucateco. In J. Holmquist, A. Lorenzino, and L. Sayahi (eds) Selected Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics 74–84. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

Claes, J. (2014) A Cognitive Construction Grammar approach to the pluralization of presentational haber and its social meaning in Puerto Rican Spanish. Language Variation and Change 26(2): 219–246. Doi:

Claes, J. (2015) Competing Constructions: The pluralization of presentational haber in Dominican Spanish. Cognitive Linguistics 26(1): 1–30. Doi:

Commelerán y Gómez, F. A. (1897) Gramática Comparada de Las Lenguas Castellana y Latina. Madrid: A. Jubera.

D’Aquino-Ruiz, G. (2004) Haber impersonal en el habla de Caracas. Análisis sociolingüístico. Boletín de Lingüística 21: 3–26.

Davies, M. (2002) Corpus del Español: 100 million words, 1200s–1900s. Retrieved from

DeMello, G. (1991) Pluralización del verbo haber impersonal en el español hablado culto de once ciudades. Thesaurus 46: 445–471.

Díaz-Campos, M. (1999–2000) La pluralización del verbo haber en dos áreas dialectales de Hispanoamérica. Anuario de Lingüística Hispánica 15–16: 235–245.

Díaz-Campos, M. (2003) The pluralization of haber in Venezuelan Spanish: A sociolinguistic change in real time. IU Working Papers in Linguistics 3: 06.

Fernández, E. M. and Cairns, H. S. (2011) Fundamentals of Psycholinguistics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Fontanella de Weinberg, M. B. (1992) Variación sincrónica y diacrónica de las construcciones con haber en el español americano. Boletín de Filología 33: 35–46.

Hooper, J. B. (1976) Word frequency in lexical diffusion and the source of morphophonological change. In W. M. Christie, Jr. (ed.) Current Progress in Historical Linguistics 96–105. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Hopper, P. J. and Traugott, E. C. (2003) Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doi:

Johnson, D. E. (2009) Getting off the GoldVarb standard: Introducing Rbrul for mixed effects variable rule analysis. Language and Linguistics Compass 3: 359–383. Doi:

Joseph, J. E. (2000) Limiting the Arbitrary: Linguistic Naturalism and Its Opposites in Plato’s Cratylus and Modern Theories of Language. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Doi:

Labov, W. (1972) Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Labov, W. (1994) Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol. 1: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.

Labov, W. (2001) Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol. 2: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.

Labov, W. (2007) Transmission and diffusion. Language 83(2): 344–387. Doi:

Michnowicz, J. (2008) Final nasal variation in Merida, Yucatan. Spanish in Context 5(2): 278–303.

Monlau y Roca, P. F. (1856) Diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana. Madrid: Rivadeneyra.

Montes, J. J. (1998) El español hablado en Bogotá. Análisis previo a su estratificación social. Santafé de Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.

Real Academia Española y Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (2010) Nueva gramática de la lengua española. Madrid: Espasa.

Seco, M. (1998) Diccionario de dudas y dificultades de la lengua española (10th ed.). Madrid: Espasa.

Schwegler, A., Kempff, J. and Ameal-Guerra, A. (2009) Fonética y Fonología Españolas. West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons.

Shin, N. L. (2016) Acquiring constraints on morphosyntactic variation: Children’s Spanish subject pronoun expression. Journal of Child Language 43(4): 914–947. Doi:

Tagliamonte, S. (2012) Variationist Sociolinguistics: Change, Observation, Interpretation. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Torres y Gómez, E. (1899) Gramática Histórico-Comparada de La Lengua Castellana. Madrid: Saenz.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email:

Privacy Policy