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2. Ethnological and Neurophenomenological Approaches to Religious Experiences

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1. Title Title of document 2. Ethnological and Neurophenomenological Approaches to Religious Experiences - The Study of Religious Experience
2. Creator Author's name, affiliation, country Michael Winkleman; Professor; United States
3. Subject Discipline(s) Religious Studies
4. Subject Keyword(s) Neurophenomenology; Biogenetic; consciousness; cross-cultural comparison
5. Subject Subject classification Religious experience; Social Science Methodology
6. Description Abstract A compelling aspect of religious experience is the similarity in the reports across people, time and cultures which suggest their bases in human nature. Cross-cultural research is a key tool for establishing these universals, as well as for determining the social differences in the manifestation of these phenomena (for example, the predominance of possession experiences in politically stratified societies). Biogenetic structural approaches help to identify the foundations for these experiences, placing them in the context of brain functions and the structures of consciousness. Neurophenomenological approaches that establish homologies of the structure and content of these phenomenological experiences with brain functions provide a basis for understanding the significance in relation to human nature. This paper provides: 1) a cross-cultural approach to religious experiences, noting both universals and social complexity differences in the manifestations of classic forms of religious experience; 2) a biogenetic approach to the alteration of consciousness associated with many religious experiences, characterizing them in relation to an integrative mode of consciousness in which the functions of ancient brain systems are elevated and integrated in consciousness; and 3) a neurophenomenological approach to religious experiences that characterizes some of the typical experiences in relationship to the activation and deactivation of specific brain systems. These approaches help to clarify why religious experiences are universal in terms of their relationship to innate aspects of brain function and the basic operations of consciousness.
7. Publisher Organizing agency, location Equinox Publishing Ltd
8. Contributor Sponsor(s)
9. Date (YYYY-MM-DD) 25-Aug-2016
10. Type Status & genre Peer-reviewed Article
11. Type Type
12. Format File format PDF
13. Identifier Uniform Resource Identifier
14. Identifier Digital Object Identifier 10.1558/equinox.26576
15. Source Journal/conference title; vol., no. (year) Equinox eBooks Publishing; The Study of Religious Experience
16. Language English=en en
18. Coverage Geo-spatial location, chronological period, research sample (gender, age, etc.) contemporary
19. Rights Copyright and permissions Copyright 2014 Equinox Publishing Ltd