Gender and Language, Vol 11, No 2 (2017)

An exploratory review of gender ideologies and sexism in the Ga language

Benedicta Adokarley Lomotey
Issued Date: 20 Jun 2017


Although research on language and gender has focused largely on gendered languages, not much attention has been given to genderless languages. The current study attempts to explore gender ideologies and sexism in Ga, which is a genderless language. Based on an interdisciplinary approach to this multifaceted problem, the author aims at critically reviewing the construction and representation of gender identities through language using Glick and Fiske’s ambivalent sexism theory and feminist critical discourse analysis of data collected from focus group discussions and interviews. Among other things, this study shows how discourses of biological essentialism are used to justify what is presented as a natural gender order.

Download Media

PDF (Price: £17.50 )

DOI: 10.1558/genl.19614


Allport, G. W. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ankra Nee-Adjabeng, E. A. (1966) Agwaseη Wiemͻi kε Abεi Komεi. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.

Bem, S. L. (1993) The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bloomberg, D. L. and Volpe, M. (2008) Completing Your Qualitative Dissertation: A Roadmap from Beginning to End. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Braun, F. (2001) The communication of gender in Turkish. In M. Hellinger and H. Bußmann (eds) Gender across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (vol. 1) 283–310. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Fairclough, N. (1989) Language and Power. New York: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (2003) Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routeledge.

Fairclough, N. (2010) Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. Harlow: Longman.

Fiske, S. T. (1993) Controlling other people: the impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist 48: 621–28.

Friedan B. (1962) The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton.

García Meseguer, Á. (1984) Lenguaje y discriminación sexual. Madrid: Montesinos.

Gil Flores, J., Jimenez García, E. and Rodriguez Gomez, G. (1994) Analysis of the data obtained in research through focus groups. Enseñanza 12: 183–99.

Glick, P. and Fiske, S. T. (1996) The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 491–512.

Glick, P. and Fiske, S. T. (1997) Hostile and benevolent sexism: measuring ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Psychology of Women Quarterly 21: 119–35.

Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Hellinger. M. and Bußmann, H. (eds) (2001) Gender across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (vol. 1). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Company.

Hochschild, A. R. and Machung, A. (2003) The Second Shift. New York: Penguin Books.

Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. ([1980]2003) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Lazar, M. M. (2005) Politicizing gender in discourse: feminist CDA as political perspective and praxis. In M. M. Lazar (ed.) Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender, Power and Ideology in Discourse 1–28. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lazar, M. M. (2007) Feminist critical discourse analysis: articulating a feminist discourse praxis. Critical Discourse Studies 4: 141–64.

Lazar, M. M. (2008) Language, communication and the public sphere: a perspective from feminist critical discourse analysis. In R. Wodak and V. Koller (eds) Handbook of Communication in the Public Sphere 89–112. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Lopez García, A. and Morant, R. (1991) Gramática Femenina. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra.

Mills, S. (2008) Language and Sexism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pavlidou, T. S. (2011) Gender and interaction. In R. Wodak; B. Johnstone and P. E. Kerswill (eds) The Sage Handbook of Sociolinguistics 412–28. London: Sage Publications.

Philips, S. U. (2003) The power of gender ideologies in discourse. In J. Holmes and M. Meyerhoff (eds) The Handbook of Language and Gender 252–76. Oxford: Blackwell.

Robertson, C. C. (1984) Sharing the Same Bowl: A Socioeconomic History of Women and Class in Accra, Ghana. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Stokoe, E. (2012) ‘You know how men are’: description, categorization and common knowledge in the anatomy of a categorial practice. Gender and Language 6: 233–55.

Stubbs, M. (1996) Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer Assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.

Sunderland, J. (2004) Gendered Discourses. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Talbot, M. M. (2003) Gender stereotypes: reproduction and challenge. In J. Holmes and M. Meyerhoff (eds) The Handbook of Language and Gender 468–86. Oxford: Blackwell.

Tannen, D. (2007) Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2001) Critical discourse analysis. In D. Tannen, D. Schiffrin, and H. Hamilton (eds) Handbook of Discourse Analysis 352–71. Oxford: Blackwell.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: [email protected]

Privacy Policy