CALICO Journal, Vol 33, No 3 (2016)

English Language Learners’ Strategies for Reading Computer-Based Texts at Home and in School

Ho-Ryong Park, Deoksoon Kim
Issued Date: 26 Aug 2016


This study investigated four elementary-level English language learners’ (ELLs’) use of strategies for reading computer-based texts at home and in school. The ELLs in this study were in the fourth and fifth grades in a public elementary school. We identify the ELLs’ strategies for reading computer-based texts in home and school environments. We present a taxonomy of five reading-strategy categories, which includes 15 total strategies that they pursued at home and in school. We describe the central role of dialogue in helping ELLs learn to read computer-based texts: The learners engaged in real and virtual dialogues with adults, peers, authors, and themselves, in ways that enhanced their development of effective reading strategies. We discuss pedagogical implications of our findings, describing how parents and teachers might work separately and together to facilitate ELLs’ reading in today’s learning contexts that include electronic literacies.

Download Media


DOI: 10.1558/cj.v33i3.26552


ACTFL. (2012). ACTFL proficiency guidelines 2012. Retrieved from

Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B. Y. (2008). Identifying and describing constructively responsive comprehension strategies in new and traditional forms of reading. In S. Israel & G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of reading comprehension research (pp. 69–90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Akbulut, Y. (2007). Effects of multimedia annotations on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced learners of English as a foreign language. Instructional Science, 35(6), 499–517. Retrieved from

Al-Seghayer, K. (2001). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning & Technology, 5(11), 202–232.

Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: Changing times, changing literacies. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M. M. Bakhtin (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays (V. W. McGee, Trans.). Austin, TX: University of Press. (Original work published 1979)

Bannert, M., & Reimann, P. (2012). Supporting self-regulated hypermedia learning through prompts. Instructional Science, 40(1), 193–211. Retrieved from

Beatty, K. (2010). Teaching and researching: Computer-assisted language learning (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Becker, H. J., & Ravitz, J. (1999). The influence of computer and Internet use on teachers’ pedagogical practice and perceptions. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 31(4), 356–384. Retrieved from

Berkeley, S., Marshak, L., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2011). Improving student comprehension of social studies text: A self-questioning strategy for inclusive middle school classes. Remedial and Special Education, 32(2), 105–113. Retrieved from

Blanchard, J. (1997). The family–school connection and technology. Proceedings of the Families, Technologies, and Education Conference. Retrieved from

Carrell, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. C. (1983). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 17(4), 553–573. Retrieved from

Chatel, R. (2002). New technology, new literacy: Creating a bridge for English language learners. New England Reading Association Journal, 38(3), 45–49.

Chen, M., Ferdig, R., & Wood, A. (2003). Understanding technology-enhanced storybooks and their roles in teaching and learning: An investigation of electronic storybooks in education. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 3. Retrieved from

Cho, B.-Y. (2013). Adolescents’ constructively responsive reading strategy use in a critical Internet reading task. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(4), 329–332. Retrieved from

Cho, B.-Y., & Afflerbach, P. (2015). Reading on the Internet: Realizing and constructing potential texts. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58(6), 504–517. Retrieved from

Chou, I.-C. (2012). Understanding on-screen reading behaviors in academic contexts: A case study of five graduate English-as-a-second-language students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25(5), 411–433. Retrieved from

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 183–198. Retrieved from

Cohen, A. D. (2011). Second language learner strategies. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 563–579). New York, NY: Routledge.

Coiro, J. (2003). Exploring literacy on the Internet. The Reading Teacher, 56(5), 458–464.

Coiro, J. (2011). Predicting reading comprehension on the Internet: Contributions of offline reading skills, online reading skills, and prior knowledge. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(4), 352–392. Retrieved from

Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42(2), 214–257. Retrieved from

Cummins, J. (1991). Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children (pp. 70–89). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Cummins, J. (2011). Literacy engagement: Fueling academic growth for English learners. The Reading Teacher, 65(2), 142–146. Retrieved from

Davey, B., & McBride, S. (1986). Effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 256–262. Retrieved from

Dillon, P. M., & Leonard, D. C. (1998). Multimedia and the Web from A to Z (2nd ed.). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

Elshair, H. M. (2002). The strategies used by students to read educational websites and their relation to website usability and text design (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Eskey, D. E. (2005). Reading in a second language. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 563–579). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fitzgerald, J. (1995). English-as-a-second-language learners’ cognitive reading processes: A review of research in the United States. Review of Educational Research, 65(2), 145–190. Retrieved from

Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum International.

Gambrell, L. B. (2011). Seven rules of engagement: What’s most important to know about motivation to read. The Reading Teacher, 65(3), 172–178. Retrieved from

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441–467. Retrieved from

Goodman, K. (1984). Unity in reading. In A. Purves & O. Niles (Eds.), Becoming readers in a complex society: 83rd yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (pp. 79–114). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hartman, D. K. (1995). Eight readers reading: The intertextual links of proficient readers reading multiple passages. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(3), 520–561. Retrieved from

Heller, R. S. (1990). The role of hypermedia in education: A look at the research issues. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 22(4), 431–441. Retrieved from

Hsieh, P., & Dwyer, F. (2009). The instructional effect of online reading strategies and learning styles on student academic achievement. Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 36–50.

Huang, H. (2013). Online reading strategies at work: What teachers think and what students do. ReCALL, 25(3), 340–358. Retrieved from

Huang, H., Chern, C., & Lin, C. (2009). EFL learners’ use of online reading strategies and comprehension of texts: An exploratory study. Computers & Education, 52(1), 13–26. Retrieved from

Jacobs, G. M., Dufon, P., & Hong, C. H. (1994). L1 and L2 vocabulary glosses in L2 reading passages: Their effectiveness for increasing comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Journal of Research in Reading, 17(1), 19–28. Retrieved from

Kellner, D. (2001). New technologies/new literacies: Reconstructing education for the new millennium. Teaching Education, 11(3), 245–265. Retrieved from

Kim, D. (2011). Dialogic meaning construction and emergent reading domains among four young English language learners in second-language reading. Multilingual Education, 1, Article 2. Retrieved from

Kohl, G. O., Lengua, L. J., & McMahon, R. J. (2000). Parental involvement in school: Conceptualizing multiple dimensions and their relations with family and demographic risk factors. Journal of School Psychology, 38(6), 501–523. Retrieved from

Kommers, P. A. M., Grabinger, S., & Dunlap, J. C. (1996). Hypermedia learning environments: Instructional design and integration. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kuiper, E., Volman, M., & Terwel, J. (2005). The web as an information resource in K–12 education: Strategies for supporting students in searching and processing information. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 285–328. Retrieved from

Lau, K. (2006). Reading strategy use between Chinese good and poor readers: A think-aloud study. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(4), 383–399. Retrieved from

Lawson, M. A. (2003). School–family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban Education, 38(1), 77–133. Retrieved from

Lee, J. (2006). Exploring the relationship between electronic literacy and heritage language maintenance. Language Learning & Technology, 10(2), 93–113.

Lee, O., & Buxton, C. A. (2010). Diversity and equity in science education: Research, policy, and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Lee, S., & Chae, Y. (2007). Children’s Internet use in a family context: Influence on family relationships and parental mediation. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(5), 640–644. Retrieved from

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Liu, M., Navarrete, C. C., & Wivagg, J. (2014). Potentials of mobile technology for K–12 education: An investigation of iPod touch use for English language learners in the United States. Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 115–126.

Livingstone, S., & Bober, M. (2004). UK children go online: Surveying the experiences of young people and their parents. LSE Research Online. Retrieved from

Loeb, M. (2002). Literacy marriage: A study of intertextuality in a series of short stories by Joyce Carol Oates. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.

Martin, E. J., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2002). Establishing a home–school connection: Strengthening the partnership between families and schools. Preventing School Failure, 46(2), 62–65. Retrieved from

McKnight, C., Dillon, A., & Richardson, J. (1996). User-centered design of hypertext/hypermedia for education. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 622–633). New York, NY: Macmillan Library Reference.

McNabb, M., Hassel, B., & Steiner, L. (2002). Literacy learning on the Net: An exploratory study. Reading Online. Retrieved from

McPherson, K. (2005). Reading the Internet. Teacher Librarian, 32(5), 60–61.

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education: Revised and expanded from case study research in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Myers, D. (1990). Computer game genres. Play & Culture, 3, 286–301.

Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Oakhill, J., & Cain, K. (2007). Issues of causality in children’s reading comprehension. In D. S. McNamara (Ed.), Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies (pp. 47–71), New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.

O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York, NY: Newbury House.

Oxford, R. L., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: Methods, findings, and instructional issues. Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404–419. Retrieved from

Park, H.-R. (2012). Four English language learners’ experiences and strategy use in learning environments of multiliteracies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, FL.

Park, H.-R., & Helsel, C. (2008). Differences between reading electronic and book-based text: Suggestions and implications for literacy teachers and literacy teacher educators. Journal of Reading Education, 33(3), 28–31.

Park, H.-R., & Kim, D. (2011). Reading-strategy use by English as a second language learners in online reading tasks. Computers & Education, 57(3), 2156–2166. Retrieved from

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Perez, B. (1998). Sociocultural contexts of language and literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 385–407. Retrieved from

Richards, J. C., & Anderson, N. A. (2003). How do you know? A strategy to help emergent readers make inferences. The Reading Teacher, 57(3), 290–294.

Rogers, R. R. H., & Wright, V. H. (2008). Assessing technology’s role in communication between parents and middle schools. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 7, 36–58.

Roschelle, J. M., Pea, R. D., Hoadley, C. M., Gordin, D. N., & Means, B. M. (2000). Changing how and what children learn in school with computer-based technologies. The Future of Children, 10(2), 76–101. Retrieved from

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1978). The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of the literary work. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1982). The literacy transaction: Evocation and response. Theory into Practice, 21(4), 268–277. Retrieved from

Rosenblatt, L. M. (1986). The aesthetic transaction. The Journal of Aesthetic Education, 20(4), 122–128. Retrieved from

Rosenshine, B., Meister, C., & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 181–221. Retrieved from

Rosenthal, D. M., & Sawyers, J. Y. (1996). Building successful home/school partnerships: Strategies for parent support and involvement. Childhood Education, 72(4), 194–200. Retrieved from

Rossing, J. P., Miller, W. M., Cecil, A. K., & Stamper, S. E. (2012). iLearning: The future of higher education? Student perceptions on learning with mobile tablets. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 12(2), 1–26.

Rossman, G. B., & Rallis, S. F. (2012). Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rumelhart, D. E. (1980). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In R. J. Spiro, B. C. Bruce, & W. F. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and education (pp. 33–58). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sandberg, K. E. (2013). Hypertext: Its nature and challenges for college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 44(1), 51–71. Retrieved from

Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Heise, E. (2014). Distraction during learning with hypermedia: Difficult tasks help to keep task goals on track. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1–12. Retrived from

Serafini, F. (2010). Reading multimodal texts: Perceptual, structural and ideological perspectives. Children’s Literature in Education, 41(2), 85–104. Retrieved from

Serafini, F. (2012). Reading multimodal texts in the 21st century. Research in the Schools, 19(1), 26–32.

Shamir, A., & Korat, O. (2007). Developing an educational e-book for fostering kindergarten children’s emergent literacy. Computers in the Schools, 24(1/2), 125–143. Retrieved from

Shang, H.-F., & Chang-Chien, I.-J. (2010). The effect of self-questioning strategy on EFL learners’ reading comprehension development. International Journal of Learning, 17(2), 41–54.

Simpson, J. (2005). Learning electronic literacy skills in an online language learning community. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 327–435.

Solomon, G., & Schrum, L. (2010). Web 2.0: How-to for educators. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.

Stewart, R. A., & Cross, T. L. (1991). The effect of marginal glosses on reading comprehension and retention. Journal of Reading, 35, 4–12.

Thomas, P. (2014). A case study of using a hypermedia pedagogy in a secondary English classroom. English in Australia, 49(1), 53–62.

Topping, K. J. (1997). Electronic literacy in school and home: A look into the future. Retrieved from

Tsai, Y.-R., Ernst, C., & Talley, P. C. (2010). L1 and L2 strategy use in reading comprehension of Chinese EFL readers. Reading Psychology, 31(1), 1–29. Retrieved from

Türk, E., & Erçetin, G. (2014). Effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of multimedia glosses on L2 reading comprehension and incidental vocabulary learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(1), 1–25. Retrieved from

Van den Bulck, J., & Van den Bergh, B. (2000). The influence of perceived parental guidance patterns on children’s media use: Gender differences and media displacement. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(3), 329–348. Retrieved from

Wallace, R. M., Kupperman, J., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2000). Science on the web: Students online in a sixth-grade classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(1), 75–104. Retrieved from

Warschauer, M. (1999). Electronic literacies: Language, culture, and power in online education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Warschauer, M. (2002). A developmental perspective on technology in language education. TESOL Quarterly, 36(3), 453–475. Retrieved from

Warschauer, M., & Matuchniak, T. (2010). New technology and digital worlds: Analyzing evidence of equity in access, use, and outcomes. Review of Research in Education, 34(1), 179–225. Retrieved from

Wilson, N. S., & Smetana, L. (2011). Questioning as thinking: A metacognitive framework to improve comprehension of expository text. Literacy, 45(2), 84–90. Retrieved from

Windschitl, M., & Sahl, K. (2002). Tracing teachers’ use of technology in a laptop computer school: The interplay of teacher beliefs, social dynamics, and institutional culture. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 165–205. Retrieved from

Zenotz, V. (2012). Awareness development for online reading. Language Awareness, 21(1/2), 85–100. Retrieved from

Zhang, M. (2013). Supporting middle school students’ online reading of scientific resources: Moving beyond cursory, fragmented, and opportunistic reading. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(2), 138–152. Retrieved from

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2011). Self-regulated learning and performance: An introduction and an overview. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 1–12). New York, NY: Routledge.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Equinox Publishing Ltd - 415 The Workstation 15 Paternoster Row, Sheffield, S1 2BX United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 221-0285 - Email: [email protected]

Privacy Policy